Abstract

We report an ultranarrow-linewidth laser spectrometer at 657nm, consisting of a diode laser locked in a single stage to a stable high-finesse reference cavity. The system is characterized by comparison with a second independent system. From beat frequency measurements a linewidth below 1.5Hz (FWHM) and a fractional instability of less than 2×1015 for 1s of averaging time are observed.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2005 (3)

M. Takamoto, F.-L. Hong, R. Higashi, and H. Katori, Nature 435, 321 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Notcutt, L.-S. Ma, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, Opt. Lett. 30, 1815 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Degenhardt, H. Stoehr, C. Lisdat, G. Wilpers, H. Schnatz, B. Lipphardt, T. Nazarova, P.-E. Pottie, U. Sterr, J. Helmcke, and F. Riehle, Phys. Rev. A 72, 0662111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

S. A. Webster, M. Oxborrow, and P. Gill, Opt. Lett. 29, 1497 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Numata, A. Kemery, and J. Camp, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 250602-1-4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Margolis, G. P. Barwood, G. Huang, H. A. Klein, S. N. Lea, K. Szymaniec, and P. Gill, Science 306, 1355 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

A. Quessada, R. P. Kovacich, I. Courtillot, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, and P. Lemonde, J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 5, S150 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Eichenseer, A. Y. Nevsky, C. Schwedes, J. von Zanthier, and H. Walther, J. Phys. B 36, 553 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

C. Tamm, D. Engelke, and V. Bühner, Phys. Rev. A 61, 053405 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Wolf, B. Bodermann, and H. R. Telle, Opt. Lett. 25, 1098 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

B. C. Young, F. C. Cruz, W. M. Itano, and J. C. Bergquist, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3799 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

L. Marmet, A. A. Madej, K. J. Siemsen, J. E. Bernard, and B. G. Whitford, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 46, 169 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

1983 (1)

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

C. H. Henry, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 259 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

Barwood, G. P.

H. S. Margolis, G. P. Barwood, G. Huang, H. A. Klein, S. N. Lea, K. Szymaniec, and P. Gill, Science 306, 1355 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bergquist, J. C.

B. C. Young, F. C. Cruz, W. M. Itano, and J. C. Bergquist, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3799 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bernard, J. E.

L. Marmet, A. A. Madej, K. J. Siemsen, J. E. Bernard, and B. G. Whitford, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 46, 169 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Blatt, S.

A. D. Ludlow, M. M. Boyd, T. Zelevinsky, S. M. Foreman, S. Blatt, M. Notcutt, T. Ido, and J. Ye, arXiv.org, arXiv:physics/0508041 (2005).

Bodermann, B.

Boyd, M. M.

A. D. Ludlow, M. M. Boyd, T. Zelevinsky, S. M. Foreman, S. Blatt, M. Notcutt, T. Ido, and J. Ye, arXiv.org, arXiv:physics/0508041 (2005).

Bühner, V.

C. Tamm, D. Engelke, and V. Bühner, Phys. Rev. A 61, 053405 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Camp, J.

K. Numata, A. Kemery, and J. Camp, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 250602-1-4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Clairon, A.

A. Quessada, R. P. Kovacich, I. Courtillot, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, and P. Lemonde, J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 5, S150 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Courtillot, I.

A. Quessada, R. P. Kovacich, I. Courtillot, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, and P. Lemonde, J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 5, S150 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cruz, F. C.

B. C. Young, F. C. Cruz, W. M. Itano, and J. C. Bergquist, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3799 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Degenhardt, C.

C. Degenhardt, H. Stoehr, C. Lisdat, G. Wilpers, H. Schnatz, B. Lipphardt, T. Nazarova, P.-E. Pottie, U. Sterr, J. Helmcke, and F. Riehle, Phys. Rev. A 72, 0662111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Deng, H.

Drever, R. W. P.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Eichenseer, M.

M. Eichenseer, A. Y. Nevsky, C. Schwedes, J. von Zanthier, and H. Walther, J. Phys. B 36, 553 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Engelke, D.

C. Tamm, D. Engelke, and V. Bühner, Phys. Rev. A 61, 053405 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ford, G. M.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Foreman, S. M.

A. D. Ludlow, M. M. Boyd, T. Zelevinsky, S. M. Foreman, S. Blatt, M. Notcutt, T. Ido, and J. Ye, arXiv.org, arXiv:physics/0508041 (2005).

Fox, R.

L. Hollberg, V. Velichansky, C. Weimer, and R. Fox, in Frequency Control of Semiconductor Lasers, M.Ohtsu, ed., Vol. K of Wiley Series in Microwave and Optical Engineering (Wiley, 1996), p. 73.

Gill, P.

H. S. Margolis, G. P. Barwood, G. Huang, H. A. Klein, S. N. Lea, K. Szymaniec, and P. Gill, Science 306, 1355 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Webster, M. Oxborrow, and P. Gill, Opt. Lett. 29, 1497 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hall, J. L.

M. Notcutt, L.-S. Ma, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, Opt. Lett. 30, 1815 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. C. Wong and J. L. Hall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 1527 (1985).
[CrossRef]

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

M. Zhu and J. L. Hall, in Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics: Electromagnetic Radiation, F.Dunning and R.Hulet, eds., Vol. 29C of Experimental Methods in the Physical Sciences (Academic, 1997), p. 103.
[CrossRef]

Helmcke, J.

C. Degenhardt, H. Stoehr, C. Lisdat, G. Wilpers, H. Schnatz, B. Lipphardt, T. Nazarova, P.-E. Pottie, U. Sterr, J. Helmcke, and F. Riehle, Phys. Rev. A 72, 0662111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Henry, C. H.

C. H. Henry, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 259 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Higashi, R.

M. Takamoto, F.-L. Hong, R. Higashi, and H. Katori, Nature 435, 321 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hollberg, L.

L. Hollberg, V. Velichansky, C. Weimer, and R. Fox, in Frequency Control of Semiconductor Lasers, M.Ohtsu, ed., Vol. K of Wiley Series in Microwave and Optical Engineering (Wiley, 1996), p. 73.

Hong, F.-L.

M. Takamoto, F.-L. Hong, R. Higashi, and H. Katori, Nature 435, 321 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hough, J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Huang, G.

H. S. Margolis, G. P. Barwood, G. Huang, H. A. Klein, S. N. Lea, K. Szymaniec, and P. Gill, Science 306, 1355 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ido, T.

A. D. Ludlow, M. M. Boyd, T. Zelevinsky, S. M. Foreman, S. Blatt, M. Notcutt, T. Ido, and J. Ye, arXiv.org, arXiv:physics/0508041 (2005).

Itano, W. M.

B. C. Young, F. C. Cruz, W. M. Itano, and J. C. Bergquist, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3799 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Katori, H.

M. Takamoto, F.-L. Hong, R. Higashi, and H. Katori, Nature 435, 321 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kemery, A.

K. Numata, A. Kemery, and J. Camp, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 250602-1-4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Klein, H. A.

H. S. Margolis, G. P. Barwood, G. Huang, H. A. Klein, S. N. Lea, K. Szymaniec, and P. Gill, Science 306, 1355 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kovacich, R. P.

A. Quessada, R. P. Kovacich, I. Courtillot, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, and P. Lemonde, J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 5, S150 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kowalski, F. V.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Lea, S. N.

H. S. Margolis, G. P. Barwood, G. Huang, H. A. Klein, S. N. Lea, K. Szymaniec, and P. Gill, Science 306, 1355 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lemonde, P.

A. Quessada, R. P. Kovacich, I. Courtillot, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, and P. Lemonde, J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 5, S150 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lipphardt, B.

C. Degenhardt, H. Stoehr, C. Lisdat, G. Wilpers, H. Schnatz, B. Lipphardt, T. Nazarova, P.-E. Pottie, U. Sterr, J. Helmcke, and F. Riehle, Phys. Rev. A 72, 0662111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lisdat, C.

C. Degenhardt, H. Stoehr, C. Lisdat, G. Wilpers, H. Schnatz, B. Lipphardt, T. Nazarova, P.-E. Pottie, U. Sterr, J. Helmcke, and F. Riehle, Phys. Rev. A 72, 0662111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Littman, M. G.

Ludlow, A. D.

A. D. Ludlow, M. M. Boyd, T. Zelevinsky, S. M. Foreman, S. Blatt, M. Notcutt, T. Ido, and J. Ye, arXiv.org, arXiv:physics/0508041 (2005).

Ma, L.-S.

Madej, A. A.

L. Marmet, A. A. Madej, K. J. Siemsen, J. E. Bernard, and B. G. Whitford, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 46, 169 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Margolis, H. S.

H. S. Margolis, G. P. Barwood, G. Huang, H. A. Klein, S. N. Lea, K. Szymaniec, and P. Gill, Science 306, 1355 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marmet, L.

L. Marmet, A. A. Madej, K. J. Siemsen, J. E. Bernard, and B. G. Whitford, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 46, 169 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Metcalf, H. J.

Munley, A. J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Nazarova, T.

C. Degenhardt, H. Stoehr, C. Lisdat, G. Wilpers, H. Schnatz, B. Lipphardt, T. Nazarova, P.-E. Pottie, U. Sterr, J. Helmcke, and F. Riehle, Phys. Rev. A 72, 0662111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nevsky, A. Y.

M. Eichenseer, A. Y. Nevsky, C. Schwedes, J. von Zanthier, and H. Walther, J. Phys. B 36, 553 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Notcutt, M.

M. Notcutt, L.-S. Ma, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, Opt. Lett. 30, 1815 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Ludlow, M. M. Boyd, T. Zelevinsky, S. M. Foreman, S. Blatt, M. Notcutt, T. Ido, and J. Ye, arXiv.org, arXiv:physics/0508041 (2005).

Numata, K.

K. Numata, A. Kemery, and J. Camp, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 250602-1-4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Oxborrow, M.

Peik, E.

C. Tamm, T. Schneider, and E. Peik, in Proceedings of the 6th Symposium on Frequency Standards and Metrology, P.Gill, ed. (World Scientific, 2001), p. 369.

Pottie, P.-E.

C. Degenhardt, H. Stoehr, C. Lisdat, G. Wilpers, H. Schnatz, B. Lipphardt, T. Nazarova, P.-E. Pottie, U. Sterr, J. Helmcke, and F. Riehle, Phys. Rev. A 72, 0662111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Quessada, A.

A. Quessada, R. P. Kovacich, I. Courtillot, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, and P. Lemonde, J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 5, S150 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Riehle, F.

C. Degenhardt, H. Stoehr, C. Lisdat, G. Wilpers, H. Schnatz, B. Lipphardt, T. Nazarova, P.-E. Pottie, U. Sterr, J. Helmcke, and F. Riehle, Phys. Rev. A 72, 0662111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Santarelli, G.

A. Quessada, R. P. Kovacich, I. Courtillot, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, and P. Lemonde, J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 5, S150 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schnatz, H.

C. Degenhardt, H. Stoehr, C. Lisdat, G. Wilpers, H. Schnatz, B. Lipphardt, T. Nazarova, P.-E. Pottie, U. Sterr, J. Helmcke, and F. Riehle, Phys. Rev. A 72, 0662111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, T.

C. Tamm, T. Schneider, and E. Peik, in Proceedings of the 6th Symposium on Frequency Standards and Metrology, P.Gill, ed. (World Scientific, 2001), p. 369.

Schwedes, C.

M. Eichenseer, A. Y. Nevsky, C. Schwedes, J. von Zanthier, and H. Walther, J. Phys. B 36, 553 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shevy, Y.

Siemsen, K. J.

L. Marmet, A. A. Madej, K. J. Siemsen, J. E. Bernard, and B. G. Whitford, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 46, 169 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sterr, U.

C. Degenhardt, H. Stoehr, C. Lisdat, G. Wilpers, H. Schnatz, B. Lipphardt, T. Nazarova, P.-E. Pottie, U. Sterr, J. Helmcke, and F. Riehle, Phys. Rev. A 72, 0662111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stoehr, H.

C. Degenhardt, H. Stoehr, C. Lisdat, G. Wilpers, H. Schnatz, B. Lipphardt, T. Nazarova, P.-E. Pottie, U. Sterr, J. Helmcke, and F. Riehle, Phys. Rev. A 72, 0662111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Stoehr, "Diodenlaser mit Hertz-Linienbreite für ein optisches Calcium-Frequenznormal," Ph.D. dissertation urn:nbn:de:gbv:089-4850973620 (Universität Hannover, 2005).

Szymaniec, K.

H. S. Margolis, G. P. Barwood, G. Huang, H. A. Klein, S. N. Lea, K. Szymaniec, and P. Gill, Science 306, 1355 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takamoto, M.

M. Takamoto, F.-L. Hong, R. Higashi, and H. Katori, Nature 435, 321 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tamm, C.

C. Tamm, D. Engelke, and V. Bühner, Phys. Rev. A 61, 053405 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Tamm, T. Schneider, and E. Peik, in Proceedings of the 6th Symposium on Frequency Standards and Metrology, P.Gill, ed. (World Scientific, 2001), p. 369.

Telle, H. R.

Velichansky, V.

L. Hollberg, V. Velichansky, C. Weimer, and R. Fox, in Frequency Control of Semiconductor Lasers, M.Ohtsu, ed., Vol. K of Wiley Series in Microwave and Optical Engineering (Wiley, 1996), p. 73.

von Zanthier, J.

M. Eichenseer, A. Y. Nevsky, C. Schwedes, J. von Zanthier, and H. Walther, J. Phys. B 36, 553 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Walther, H.

M. Eichenseer, A. Y. Nevsky, C. Schwedes, J. von Zanthier, and H. Walther, J. Phys. B 36, 553 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ward, H.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Webster, S. A.

Weimer, C.

L. Hollberg, V. Velichansky, C. Weimer, and R. Fox, in Frequency Control of Semiconductor Lasers, M.Ohtsu, ed., Vol. K of Wiley Series in Microwave and Optical Engineering (Wiley, 1996), p. 73.

Whitford, B. G.

L. Marmet, A. A. Madej, K. J. Siemsen, J. E. Bernard, and B. G. Whitford, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 46, 169 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wilpers, G.

C. Degenhardt, H. Stoehr, C. Lisdat, G. Wilpers, H. Schnatz, B. Lipphardt, T. Nazarova, P.-E. Pottie, U. Sterr, J. Helmcke, and F. Riehle, Phys. Rev. A 72, 0662111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, A.

Wong, N. C.

Ye, J.

M. Notcutt, L.-S. Ma, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, Opt. Lett. 30, 1815 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Ludlow, M. M. Boyd, T. Zelevinsky, S. M. Foreman, S. Blatt, M. Notcutt, T. Ido, and J. Ye, arXiv.org, arXiv:physics/0508041 (2005).

Young, B. C.

B. C. Young, F. C. Cruz, W. M. Itano, and J. C. Bergquist, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3799 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zelevinsky, T.

A. D. Ludlow, M. M. Boyd, T. Zelevinsky, S. M. Foreman, S. Blatt, M. Notcutt, T. Ido, and J. Ye, arXiv.org, arXiv:physics/0508041 (2005).

Zhu, M.

M. Zhu and J. L. Hall, in Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics: Electromagnetic Radiation, F.Dunning and R.Hulet, eds., Vol. 29C of Experimental Methods in the Physical Sciences (Academic, 1997), p. 103.
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. H. Henry, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 259 (1982).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (1)

L. Marmet, A. A. Madej, K. J. Siemsen, J. E. Bernard, and B. G. Whitford, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 46, 169 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. (1)

A. Quessada, R. P. Kovacich, I. Courtillot, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, and P. Lemonde, J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 5, S150 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. B (1)

M. Eichenseer, A. Y. Nevsky, C. Schwedes, J. von Zanthier, and H. Walther, J. Phys. B 36, 553 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

M. Takamoto, F.-L. Hong, R. Higashi, and H. Katori, Nature 435, 321 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

C. Tamm, D. Engelke, and V. Bühner, Phys. Rev. A 61, 053405 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Degenhardt, H. Stoehr, C. Lisdat, G. Wilpers, H. Schnatz, B. Lipphardt, T. Nazarova, P.-E. Pottie, U. Sterr, J. Helmcke, and F. Riehle, Phys. Rev. A 72, 0662111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Setup of the diode laser spectrometer. In the upper part the extended cavity diode laser and in the lower part the reference resonator are shown. BS and PBS, nonpolarizing and polarizing beam splitters; AOM, acousto-optic modulator; Pol., polarizer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Relative Allan standard deviation of the beat frequency of the two lasers, both locked to the same cavity (open squares) and both locked to independent cavities with a constant drift of 0.44 Hz s removed (filled circles).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Spectral density of frequency fluctuations, which was used as a reference. Free-running laser, stabilized laser, and the detection noise of the second system. The white-noise levels that would correspond to linewidths of 1 Hz and 1 mHz are shown as dashed lines, the thermal noise level as a dotted line.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Beat spectrum between two independent diode laser systems. The frequency axis is centered at the difference frequency of 477 MHz .

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