Abstract

A deformable mirror mounted on a two-axis tilt platform can provide wavefront compensation at a single location in an adaptive optics system, resulting in a significant reduction in the number of optical components in the system and in a simplification of the alignment. However, the moment of inertia of a deformable mirror is significantly different from that of the monolithic mirror commonly mounted on a tilt platform. We report on what are to our knowledge the first experimental results of mounting a microelectromechanical deformable mirror onto a fast steering platform and the first observation that at low operating frequencies high-order deformation of the deformable mirror membrane was not recorded.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. W. Hardy, Adaptive Optics for Astronomical Telescopes, Vol. 16 of Oxford Series in Optics & Imaging Science (Oxford U. Press, 1998).
  2. M. A. van Dam, D. LeMignant, and B. A. Macintosh, Appl. Opt. 43, 5458 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. F. Roddier, Adaptive Optics in Astronomy (Cambridge U. Press, 1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. Noll, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 207 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  5. B. Frazier, J. Cavaco, M. Smith, and Z. Chaudhry, in Proc. SPIE 5169, 90 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. Arsenault, J. Alonso, H. Bonnet, J. Brynnel, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, C. Dupuy, E. Fedrigo, J. Farinato, N. N. Hubin, L. Ivanescu, M. E. Kasper, J. Paufique, S. Rossi, S. Tordo, S. Stroebele, J.-L. Lizon, P. Gigan, F. Delplancke, A. Silber, M. Quattri, and R. Reiss, in Proc. SPIE 4839, 174 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. Brusa and C. Del Vecchio, Appl. Opt. 37, 21 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. R. Restaino, C. Gilbreath, D. T. Payne, and J. Andrews, in Proc. SPIE 5348, 160 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Physik Instrumente, Products for Micropositioning, Catalog, U.S. ed. (Physik Instrumente, 2004), p. 8.11.
  10. C. Wilcox, S. Restaino, J. Andrews, D. Payne, and S. Teare, in Proceedings of 2004 AMOS Technical Conference (Maui Economic Development Board, 2004) p. 325.
  11. L. Zhu, P. Sun, D. Bartsch, W. Freeman, and Y. Fainman, Appl. Opt. 38, 168 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. K. Tyson and B. W. Frazier, Field Guide to Adaptive Optics (SPIE Press, 2004).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (2)

M. A. van Dam, D. LeMignant, and B. A. Macintosh, Appl. Opt. 43, 5458 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Restaino, C. Gilbreath, D. T. Payne, and J. Andrews, in Proc. SPIE 5348, 160 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

B. Frazier, J. Cavaco, M. Smith, and Z. Chaudhry, in Proc. SPIE 5169, 90 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Arsenault, J. Alonso, H. Bonnet, J. Brynnel, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, C. Dupuy, E. Fedrigo, J. Farinato, N. N. Hubin, L. Ivanescu, M. E. Kasper, J. Paufique, S. Rossi, S. Tordo, S. Stroebele, J.-L. Lizon, P. Gigan, F. Delplancke, A. Silber, M. Quattri, and R. Reiss, in Proc. SPIE 4839, 174 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

G. Brusa and C. Del Vecchio, Appl. Opt. 37, 21 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

Alonso, J.

R. Arsenault, J. Alonso, H. Bonnet, J. Brynnel, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, C. Dupuy, E. Fedrigo, J. Farinato, N. N. Hubin, L. Ivanescu, M. E. Kasper, J. Paufique, S. Rossi, S. Tordo, S. Stroebele, J.-L. Lizon, P. Gigan, F. Delplancke, A. Silber, M. Quattri, and R. Reiss, in Proc. SPIE 4839, 174 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, J.

S. R. Restaino, C. Gilbreath, D. T. Payne, and J. Andrews, in Proc. SPIE 5348, 160 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Wilcox, S. Restaino, J. Andrews, D. Payne, and S. Teare, in Proceedings of 2004 AMOS Technical Conference (Maui Economic Development Board, 2004) p. 325.

Arsenault, R.

R. Arsenault, J. Alonso, H. Bonnet, J. Brynnel, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, C. Dupuy, E. Fedrigo, J. Farinato, N. N. Hubin, L. Ivanescu, M. E. Kasper, J. Paufique, S. Rossi, S. Tordo, S. Stroebele, J.-L. Lizon, P. Gigan, F. Delplancke, A. Silber, M. Quattri, and R. Reiss, in Proc. SPIE 4839, 174 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bartsch, D.

Bonnet, H.

R. Arsenault, J. Alonso, H. Bonnet, J. Brynnel, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, C. Dupuy, E. Fedrigo, J. Farinato, N. N. Hubin, L. Ivanescu, M. E. Kasper, J. Paufique, S. Rossi, S. Tordo, S. Stroebele, J.-L. Lizon, P. Gigan, F. Delplancke, A. Silber, M. Quattri, and R. Reiss, in Proc. SPIE 4839, 174 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brusa, G.

G. Brusa and C. Del Vecchio, Appl. Opt. 37, 21 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brynnel, J.

R. Arsenault, J. Alonso, H. Bonnet, J. Brynnel, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, C. Dupuy, E. Fedrigo, J. Farinato, N. N. Hubin, L. Ivanescu, M. E. Kasper, J. Paufique, S. Rossi, S. Tordo, S. Stroebele, J.-L. Lizon, P. Gigan, F. Delplancke, A. Silber, M. Quattri, and R. Reiss, in Proc. SPIE 4839, 174 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cavaco, J.

B. Frazier, J. Cavaco, M. Smith, and Z. Chaudhry, in Proc. SPIE 5169, 90 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chaudhry, Z.

B. Frazier, J. Cavaco, M. Smith, and Z. Chaudhry, in Proc. SPIE 5169, 90 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Del Vecchio, C.

G. Brusa and C. Del Vecchio, Appl. Opt. 37, 21 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Delabre, B.

R. Arsenault, J. Alonso, H. Bonnet, J. Brynnel, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, C. Dupuy, E. Fedrigo, J. Farinato, N. N. Hubin, L. Ivanescu, M. E. Kasper, J. Paufique, S. Rossi, S. Tordo, S. Stroebele, J.-L. Lizon, P. Gigan, F. Delplancke, A. Silber, M. Quattri, and R. Reiss, in Proc. SPIE 4839, 174 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Delplancke, F.

R. Arsenault, J. Alonso, H. Bonnet, J. Brynnel, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, C. Dupuy, E. Fedrigo, J. Farinato, N. N. Hubin, L. Ivanescu, M. E. Kasper, J. Paufique, S. Rossi, S. Tordo, S. Stroebele, J.-L. Lizon, P. Gigan, F. Delplancke, A. Silber, M. Quattri, and R. Reiss, in Proc. SPIE 4839, 174 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Donaldson, R.

R. Arsenault, J. Alonso, H. Bonnet, J. Brynnel, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, C. Dupuy, E. Fedrigo, J. Farinato, N. N. Hubin, L. Ivanescu, M. E. Kasper, J. Paufique, S. Rossi, S. Tordo, S. Stroebele, J.-L. Lizon, P. Gigan, F. Delplancke, A. Silber, M. Quattri, and R. Reiss, in Proc. SPIE 4839, 174 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dupuy, C.

R. Arsenault, J. Alonso, H. Bonnet, J. Brynnel, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, C. Dupuy, E. Fedrigo, J. Farinato, N. N. Hubin, L. Ivanescu, M. E. Kasper, J. Paufique, S. Rossi, S. Tordo, S. Stroebele, J.-L. Lizon, P. Gigan, F. Delplancke, A. Silber, M. Quattri, and R. Reiss, in Proc. SPIE 4839, 174 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fainman, Y.

Farinato, J.

R. Arsenault, J. Alonso, H. Bonnet, J. Brynnel, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, C. Dupuy, E. Fedrigo, J. Farinato, N. N. Hubin, L. Ivanescu, M. E. Kasper, J. Paufique, S. Rossi, S. Tordo, S. Stroebele, J.-L. Lizon, P. Gigan, F. Delplancke, A. Silber, M. Quattri, and R. Reiss, in Proc. SPIE 4839, 174 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fedrigo, E.

R. Arsenault, J. Alonso, H. Bonnet, J. Brynnel, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, C. Dupuy, E. Fedrigo, J. Farinato, N. N. Hubin, L. Ivanescu, M. E. Kasper, J. Paufique, S. Rossi, S. Tordo, S. Stroebele, J.-L. Lizon, P. Gigan, F. Delplancke, A. Silber, M. Quattri, and R. Reiss, in Proc. SPIE 4839, 174 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Frazier, B.

B. Frazier, J. Cavaco, M. Smith, and Z. Chaudhry, in Proc. SPIE 5169, 90 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Frazier, B. W.

R. K. Tyson and B. W. Frazier, Field Guide to Adaptive Optics (SPIE Press, 2004).
[CrossRef]

Freeman, W.

Gigan, P.

R. Arsenault, J. Alonso, H. Bonnet, J. Brynnel, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, C. Dupuy, E. Fedrigo, J. Farinato, N. N. Hubin, L. Ivanescu, M. E. Kasper, J. Paufique, S. Rossi, S. Tordo, S. Stroebele, J.-L. Lizon, P. Gigan, F. Delplancke, A. Silber, M. Quattri, and R. Reiss, in Proc. SPIE 4839, 174 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gilbreath, C.

S. R. Restaino, C. Gilbreath, D. T. Payne, and J. Andrews, in Proc. SPIE 5348, 160 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hardy, J. W.

J. W. Hardy, Adaptive Optics for Astronomical Telescopes, Vol. 16 of Oxford Series in Optics & Imaging Science (Oxford U. Press, 1998).

Hubin, N. N.

R. Arsenault, J. Alonso, H. Bonnet, J. Brynnel, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, C. Dupuy, E. Fedrigo, J. Farinato, N. N. Hubin, L. Ivanescu, M. E. Kasper, J. Paufique, S. Rossi, S. Tordo, S. Stroebele, J.-L. Lizon, P. Gigan, F. Delplancke, A. Silber, M. Quattri, and R. Reiss, in Proc. SPIE 4839, 174 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ivanescu, L.

R. Arsenault, J. Alonso, H. Bonnet, J. Brynnel, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, C. Dupuy, E. Fedrigo, J. Farinato, N. N. Hubin, L. Ivanescu, M. E. Kasper, J. Paufique, S. Rossi, S. Tordo, S. Stroebele, J.-L. Lizon, P. Gigan, F. Delplancke, A. Silber, M. Quattri, and R. Reiss, in Proc. SPIE 4839, 174 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kasper, M. E.

R. Arsenault, J. Alonso, H. Bonnet, J. Brynnel, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, C. Dupuy, E. Fedrigo, J. Farinato, N. N. Hubin, L. Ivanescu, M. E. Kasper, J. Paufique, S. Rossi, S. Tordo, S. Stroebele, J.-L. Lizon, P. Gigan, F. Delplancke, A. Silber, M. Quattri, and R. Reiss, in Proc. SPIE 4839, 174 (2003).
[CrossRef]

LeMignant, D.

Lizon, J.-L.

R. Arsenault, J. Alonso, H. Bonnet, J. Brynnel, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, C. Dupuy, E. Fedrigo, J. Farinato, N. N. Hubin, L. Ivanescu, M. E. Kasper, J. Paufique, S. Rossi, S. Tordo, S. Stroebele, J.-L. Lizon, P. Gigan, F. Delplancke, A. Silber, M. Quattri, and R. Reiss, in Proc. SPIE 4839, 174 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Macintosh, B. A.

Noll, R.

Paufique, J.

R. Arsenault, J. Alonso, H. Bonnet, J. Brynnel, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, C. Dupuy, E. Fedrigo, J. Farinato, N. N. Hubin, L. Ivanescu, M. E. Kasper, J. Paufique, S. Rossi, S. Tordo, S. Stroebele, J.-L. Lizon, P. Gigan, F. Delplancke, A. Silber, M. Quattri, and R. Reiss, in Proc. SPIE 4839, 174 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Payne, D.

C. Wilcox, S. Restaino, J. Andrews, D. Payne, and S. Teare, in Proceedings of 2004 AMOS Technical Conference (Maui Economic Development Board, 2004) p. 325.

Payne, D. T.

S. R. Restaino, C. Gilbreath, D. T. Payne, and J. Andrews, in Proc. SPIE 5348, 160 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Quattri, M.

R. Arsenault, J. Alonso, H. Bonnet, J. Brynnel, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, C. Dupuy, E. Fedrigo, J. Farinato, N. N. Hubin, L. Ivanescu, M. E. Kasper, J. Paufique, S. Rossi, S. Tordo, S. Stroebele, J.-L. Lizon, P. Gigan, F. Delplancke, A. Silber, M. Quattri, and R. Reiss, in Proc. SPIE 4839, 174 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Reiss, R.

R. Arsenault, J. Alonso, H. Bonnet, J. Brynnel, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, C. Dupuy, E. Fedrigo, J. Farinato, N. N. Hubin, L. Ivanescu, M. E. Kasper, J. Paufique, S. Rossi, S. Tordo, S. Stroebele, J.-L. Lizon, P. Gigan, F. Delplancke, A. Silber, M. Quattri, and R. Reiss, in Proc. SPIE 4839, 174 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Restaino, S.

C. Wilcox, S. Restaino, J. Andrews, D. Payne, and S. Teare, in Proceedings of 2004 AMOS Technical Conference (Maui Economic Development Board, 2004) p. 325.

Restaino, S. R.

S. R. Restaino, C. Gilbreath, D. T. Payne, and J. Andrews, in Proc. SPIE 5348, 160 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Roddier, F.

F. Roddier, Adaptive Optics in Astronomy (Cambridge U. Press, 1999).
[CrossRef]

Rossi, S.

R. Arsenault, J. Alonso, H. Bonnet, J. Brynnel, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, C. Dupuy, E. Fedrigo, J. Farinato, N. N. Hubin, L. Ivanescu, M. E. Kasper, J. Paufique, S. Rossi, S. Tordo, S. Stroebele, J.-L. Lizon, P. Gigan, F. Delplancke, A. Silber, M. Quattri, and R. Reiss, in Proc. SPIE 4839, 174 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Silber, A.

R. Arsenault, J. Alonso, H. Bonnet, J. Brynnel, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, C. Dupuy, E. Fedrigo, J. Farinato, N. N. Hubin, L. Ivanescu, M. E. Kasper, J. Paufique, S. Rossi, S. Tordo, S. Stroebele, J.-L. Lizon, P. Gigan, F. Delplancke, A. Silber, M. Quattri, and R. Reiss, in Proc. SPIE 4839, 174 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Smith, M.

B. Frazier, J. Cavaco, M. Smith, and Z. Chaudhry, in Proc. SPIE 5169, 90 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stroebele, S.

R. Arsenault, J. Alonso, H. Bonnet, J. Brynnel, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, C. Dupuy, E. Fedrigo, J. Farinato, N. N. Hubin, L. Ivanescu, M. E. Kasper, J. Paufique, S. Rossi, S. Tordo, S. Stroebele, J.-L. Lizon, P. Gigan, F. Delplancke, A. Silber, M. Quattri, and R. Reiss, in Proc. SPIE 4839, 174 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sun, P.

Teare, S.

C. Wilcox, S. Restaino, J. Andrews, D. Payne, and S. Teare, in Proceedings of 2004 AMOS Technical Conference (Maui Economic Development Board, 2004) p. 325.

Tordo, S.

R. Arsenault, J. Alonso, H. Bonnet, J. Brynnel, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, C. Dupuy, E. Fedrigo, J. Farinato, N. N. Hubin, L. Ivanescu, M. E. Kasper, J. Paufique, S. Rossi, S. Tordo, S. Stroebele, J.-L. Lizon, P. Gigan, F. Delplancke, A. Silber, M. Quattri, and R. Reiss, in Proc. SPIE 4839, 174 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tyson, R. K.

R. K. Tyson and B. W. Frazier, Field Guide to Adaptive Optics (SPIE Press, 2004).
[CrossRef]

van Dam, M. A.

Wilcox, C.

C. Wilcox, S. Restaino, J. Andrews, D. Payne, and S. Teare, in Proceedings of 2004 AMOS Technical Conference (Maui Economic Development Board, 2004) p. 325.

Zhu, L.

Appl. Opt. (3)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Proc. SPIE (3)

B. Frazier, J. Cavaco, M. Smith, and Z. Chaudhry, in Proc. SPIE 5169, 90 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Arsenault, J. Alonso, H. Bonnet, J. Brynnel, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, C. Dupuy, E. Fedrigo, J. Farinato, N. N. Hubin, L. Ivanescu, M. E. Kasper, J. Paufique, S. Rossi, S. Tordo, S. Stroebele, J.-L. Lizon, P. Gigan, F. Delplancke, A. Silber, M. Quattri, and R. Reiss, in Proc. SPIE 4839, 174 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Restaino, C. Gilbreath, D. T. Payne, and J. Andrews, in Proc. SPIE 5348, 160 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

Physik Instrumente, Products for Micropositioning, Catalog, U.S. ed. (Physik Instrumente, 2004), p. 8.11.

C. Wilcox, S. Restaino, J. Andrews, D. Payne, and S. Teare, in Proceedings of 2004 AMOS Technical Conference (Maui Economic Development Board, 2004) p. 325.

F. Roddier, Adaptive Optics in Astronomy (Cambridge U. Press, 1999).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Tyson and B. W. Frazier, Field Guide to Adaptive Optics (SPIE Press, 2004).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Hardy, Adaptive Optics for Astronomical Telescopes, Vol. 16 of Oxford Series in Optics & Imaging Science (Oxford U. Press, 1998).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) System used to evaluate optically the performance of the adaptive tilt mirror, shown photographically in the inset.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Centroid movements on the x axis of one spot on the wavefront sensor CCD camera at 40 Hz. The sinusoidal curves are the signal sent to the tip–tilt platform compared with (a) the 50 mm flat mirror’s movements and (b) unpowered and (c) powered OKO mirrors’ movements.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Average PSD of centroid movements driven at 40 Hz monitored by a wavefront sensor with (a) a 50 mm flat mirror and (b) unpowered and (c) powered OKO mirrors mounted on the PI tilt stage.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Plot of the FWHM of the PSDs for the PI stage mounted with the 50 mm mirror, the unpowered mirror, and the powered OKO mirror.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Mass, Moment of Inertia, and Resonance Frequency of Various Devices

Equations (1)

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f r = f 0 ( 1 + I m I 0 ) 1 2 ,

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