Abstract

Spatially periodic patterning of the anchoring condition of a nematic liquid crystal (NLC) within a polymer matrix via a patterned photopolymerization affords a novel and facile method to prepare electrically switchable diffraction gratings. UV irradiation through a photomask of two comonomers, with opposite tendencies to align the NLC and also with different reactivity ratios, leads to definition of areas with either homeotropic or planar alignment of the NLC. Photopolymerization-induced diffusion of the monomers accounts for the spatial distribution of the concentration of these monomers. The resulting diffraction gratings are switchable under low electric fields and possess structural stability offered by the polymer matrix.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2005 (2)

S. Kumar, J. H. Kim, and Y. Shi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 077803 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhou, D. M. Collard, J. O. Park, and M. Srinivasarao, J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 8838 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

H. Ren, S. Fan, and S. T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3168 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

J. Zhou, D. M. Collard, J. O. Park, and M. Srinivasarao, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 9980 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Wen, R. G. Petschek, and C. Rosenblatt, Appl. Opt. 41, 1246 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, S. A. Siwecki, S. Chandra, and T. J. Bunning, in Proc. SPIE 4463, 1 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

K. R. Amundson and M. Srinivasarao, Phys. Rev. E 58, R1211 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

K. Amundson, A. von Blaaderen, and P. Wiltzius, Phys. Rev. E 55, 1646 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

J. Chen, P. J. Bos, H. Vithana, and D. L. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2588 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

J. Zhang, C. R. Carlen, S. Palmer, and M. B. Sponsler, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 116, 7055 (1994).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Gibbons and S. T. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2542 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1987 (1)

J. M. Geary, J. M. Goodby, A. R. Kmetz, and J. S. Patel, J. Appl. Phys. 62, 4100 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Amundson, K.

K. Amundson, A. von Blaaderen, and P. Wiltzius, Phys. Rev. E 55, 1646 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Amundson, K. R.

K. R. Amundson and M. Srinivasarao, Phys. Rev. E 58, R1211 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bos, P. J.

J. Chen, P. J. Bos, H. Vithana, and D. L. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2588 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bunning, T. J.

R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, S. A. Siwecki, S. Chandra, and T. J. Bunning, in Proc. SPIE 4463, 1 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Carlen, C. R.

J. Zhang, C. R. Carlen, S. Palmer, and M. B. Sponsler, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 116, 7055 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chandra, S.

R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, S. A. Siwecki, S. Chandra, and T. J. Bunning, in Proc. SPIE 4463, 1 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

J. Chen, P. J. Bos, H. Vithana, and D. L. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2588 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Collard, D. M.

J. Zhou, D. M. Collard, J. O. Park, and M. Srinivasarao, J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 8838 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, D. M. Collard, J. O. Park, and M. Srinivasarao, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 9980 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Gennes, P. G.

P. G. de Gennes and J. Prost, The Physics of Liquid Crystals, 3rd ed. (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1993).

Drzaic, P. S.

P. S. Drzaic, Liquid Crystal Dispersions (World Scientific, 1995), Chap. 1.

Fan, S.

H. Ren, S. Fan, and S. T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3168 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Geary, J. M.

J. M. Geary, J. M. Goodby, A. R. Kmetz, and J. S. Patel, J. Appl. Phys. 62, 4100 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Gibbons, W. M.

W. M. Gibbons and S. T. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2542 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Goodby, J. M.

J. M. Geary, J. M. Goodby, A. R. Kmetz, and J. S. Patel, J. Appl. Phys. 62, 4100 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Greenley, R. Z.

R. Z. Greenley, in Polymer Handbook, 4th ed., J.Brandrup, E.H.Immergut, and E.A.Grulke, eds. (Wiley, 1999), pp. II-268.

Johnson, D. L.

J. Chen, P. J. Bos, H. Vithana, and D. L. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2588 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. H.

S. Kumar, J. H. Kim, and Y. Shi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 077803 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kmetz, A. R.

J. M. Geary, J. M. Goodby, A. R. Kmetz, and J. S. Patel, J. Appl. Phys. 62, 4100 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, S.

S. Kumar, J. H. Kim, and Y. Shi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 077803 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Natarajan, L. V.

R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, S. A. Siwecki, S. Chandra, and T. J. Bunning, in Proc. SPIE 4463, 1 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Palmer, S.

J. Zhang, C. R. Carlen, S. Palmer, and M. B. Sponsler, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 116, 7055 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. O.

J. Zhou, D. M. Collard, J. O. Park, and M. Srinivasarao, J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 8838 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, D. M. Collard, J. O. Park, and M. Srinivasarao, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 9980 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patel, J. S.

J. S. Patel and K. Rastani, Opt. Lett. 16, 532 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Geary, J. M. Goodby, A. R. Kmetz, and J. S. Patel, J. Appl. Phys. 62, 4100 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Petschek, R. G.

Prost, J.

P. G. de Gennes and J. Prost, The Physics of Liquid Crystals, 3rd ed. (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1993).

Rastani, K.

Ren, H.

H. Ren, S. Fan, and S. T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3168 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rosenblatt, C.

Seferis, J. C.

J. C. Seferis, in Polymer Handbook, 4th ed., J.Brandrup, E.H.Immergut, and E.A.Grulke, eds. (Wiley, 1999), pp. VI-571.

Shi, Y.

S. Kumar, J. H. Kim, and Y. Shi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 077803 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siwecki, S. A.

R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, S. A. Siwecki, S. Chandra, and T. J. Bunning, in Proc. SPIE 4463, 1 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sponsler, M. B.

J. Zhang, C. R. Carlen, S. Palmer, and M. B. Sponsler, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 116, 7055 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Srinivasarao, M.

J. Zhou, D. M. Collard, J. O. Park, and M. Srinivasarao, J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 8838 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, D. M. Collard, J. O. Park, and M. Srinivasarao, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 9980 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. R. Amundson and M. Srinivasarao, Phys. Rev. E 58, R1211 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sun, S. T.

W. M. Gibbons and S. T. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2542 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sutherland, R. L.

R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, S. A. Siwecki, S. Chandra, and T. J. Bunning, in Proc. SPIE 4463, 1 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tondiglia, V. P.

R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, S. A. Siwecki, S. Chandra, and T. J. Bunning, in Proc. SPIE 4463, 1 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vithana, H.

J. Chen, P. J. Bos, H. Vithana, and D. L. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2588 (1995).
[CrossRef]

von Blaaderen, A.

K. Amundson, A. von Blaaderen, and P. Wiltzius, Phys. Rev. E 55, 1646 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wen, B.

Wiltzius, P.

K. Amundson, A. von Blaaderen, and P. Wiltzius, Phys. Rev. E 55, 1646 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S. T.

H. Ren, S. Fan, and S. T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3168 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, C. R. Carlen, S. Palmer, and M. B. Sponsler, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 116, 7055 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, J.

J. Zhou, D. M. Collard, J. O. Park, and M. Srinivasarao, J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 8838 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, D. M. Collard, J. O. Park, and M. Srinivasarao, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 9980 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

J. Chen, P. J. Bos, H. Vithana, and D. L. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2588 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren, S. Fan, and S. T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3168 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Gibbons and S. T. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2542 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2)

J. Zhang, C. R. Carlen, S. Palmer, and M. B. Sponsler, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 116, 7055 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, D. M. Collard, J. O. Park, and M. Srinivasarao, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 9980 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. M. Geary, J. M. Goodby, A. R. Kmetz, and J. S. Patel, J. Appl. Phys. 62, 4100 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

J. Zhou, D. M. Collard, J. O. Park, and M. Srinivasarao, J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 8838 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. E (2)

K. Amundson, A. von Blaaderen, and P. Wiltzius, Phys. Rev. E 55, 1646 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Amundson and M. Srinivasarao, Phys. Rev. E 58, R1211 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

S. Kumar, J. H. Kim, and Y. Shi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 077803 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, S. A. Siwecki, S. Chandra, and T. J. Bunning, in Proc. SPIE 4463, 1 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

P. G. de Gennes and J. Prost, The Physics of Liquid Crystals, 3rd ed. (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1993).

R. Z. Greenley, in Polymer Handbook, 4th ed., J.Brandrup, E.H.Immergut, and E.A.Grulke, eds. (Wiley, 1999), pp. II-268.

P. S. Drzaic, Liquid Crystal Dispersions (World Scientific, 1995), Chap. 1.

J. C. Seferis, in Polymer Handbook, 4th ed., J.Brandrup, E.H.Immergut, and E.A.Grulke, eds. (Wiley, 1999), pp. VI-571.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a), (b) Schematic of the side view of the LC–polymer film with two alternate stripes of different anchoring and morphology. (c), (d) Light micrographs of the LC–polymer grating film between crossed polarizers. (e), (f) Diffraction patterns of the same film with a normally incident 633 nm He–Ne laser. (a), (c), (e) Electric-field off state; (b), (d), (f) with an electric field E of 0.40 V μ m 1 (square-wave AC) across the thickness. The scale bar in (c) is 80 μ m . The sample thickness is 15 μ m .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Plot of the zeroth- (∎, the inset), first- (◆), second- (엯), and third-order (●) diffraction efficiencies (DEs) as a function of the root mean square values of the applied voltage. (b) Response of the zeroth-order diffraction corresponding to switching between E = 0 and 0.47 V μ m 1 .

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