Abstract

Typical disturbances of biological environment such as background scatter and refractive index variations have little effect on the size-dependent scattering property of highly refractive nanocrystals, which are potentially attractive optical labels. We report on what is to our knowledge the first investigation of these scattering optical labels, and their sizing, in particular, by imaging at subvideo frame rates and analyzing samples of diamond nanocrystals deposited on a glass substrate in air and in a matrix of weakly scattering polymer. The brightness of a diffraction-limited spot appears to serve as a reliable measure of the particle size in the Rayleigh scattering limit.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S. Weiss, Science 283, 1676 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S. Schultz, D. R. Smith, J. J. Mock, and D. A. Schultz, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97, 996 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. K. Lindfors, T. Kalkbrenner, P. Stoller, and V. Sandoghdar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 037401 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. Boyer, P. Tamarat, A. Maali, B. Lounis, and M. Orrit, Science 297, 1160 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. K. Sokolov, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 6, 651 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. D. R. Larson, W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, S. W. Clark, M. P. Bruchez, F. W. Wise, and W. W. Webb, Science 300, 1434 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Y. Dumeige, F. Treussart, R. Alleaume, T. Gacoin, J. F. Roch, and P. Grangier, J. Lumin. 109, 61 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. V. V. Tuchin, ed., Tissue Optics (SPIE Press, 2000), Chap. 1.
  9. T. R. Lettieri and G. G. Hembree, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 127, 566 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  10. B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, and L. Novotny, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. W. Lukosz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 1495 (1979), and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. Chew, D. S. Wang, and M. Kerker, Appl. Opt. 18, 2679 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. Gelles, B. J. Schnapp, and M. P. Sheetz, Nature 331, 450 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. R. D. Allen, Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biophys. Chem. 14, 265 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

K. Lindfors, T. Kalkbrenner, P. Stoller, and V. Sandoghdar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 037401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Dumeige, F. Treussart, R. Alleaume, T. Gacoin, J. F. Roch, and P. Grangier, J. Lumin. 109, 61 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

D. R. Larson, W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, S. W. Clark, M. P. Bruchez, F. W. Wise, and W. W. Webb, Science 300, 1434 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

D. Boyer, P. Tamarat, A. Maali, B. Lounis, and M. Orrit, Science 297, 1160 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Sokolov, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 6, 651 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

S. Schultz, D. R. Smith, J. J. Mock, and D. A. Schultz, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97, 996 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

S. Weiss, Science 283, 1676 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, and L. Novotny, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

T. R. Lettieri and G. G. Hembree, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 127, 566 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

J. Gelles, B. J. Schnapp, and M. P. Sheetz, Nature 331, 450 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

R. D. Allen, Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biophys. Chem. 14, 265 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1979 (2)

Alleaume, R.

Y. Dumeige, F. Treussart, R. Alleaume, T. Gacoin, J. F. Roch, and P. Grangier, J. Lumin. 109, 61 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Allen, R. D.

R. D. Allen, Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biophys. Chem. 14, 265 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bielefeldt, H.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, and L. Novotny, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Boyer, D.

D. Boyer, P. Tamarat, A. Maali, B. Lounis, and M. Orrit, Science 297, 1160 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bruchez, M. P.

D. R. Larson, W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, S. W. Clark, M. P. Bruchez, F. W. Wise, and W. W. Webb, Science 300, 1434 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chew, H.

Clark, S. W.

D. R. Larson, W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, S. W. Clark, M. P. Bruchez, F. W. Wise, and W. W. Webb, Science 300, 1434 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dumeige, Y.

Y. Dumeige, F. Treussart, R. Alleaume, T. Gacoin, J. F. Roch, and P. Grangier, J. Lumin. 109, 61 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Follen, M.

K. Sokolov, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 6, 651 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gacoin, T.

Y. Dumeige, F. Treussart, R. Alleaume, T. Gacoin, J. F. Roch, and P. Grangier, J. Lumin. 109, 61 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gelles, J.

J. Gelles, B. J. Schnapp, and M. P. Sheetz, Nature 331, 450 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grangier, P.

Y. Dumeige, F. Treussart, R. Alleaume, T. Gacoin, J. F. Roch, and P. Grangier, J. Lumin. 109, 61 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hecht, B.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, and L. Novotny, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hembree, G. G.

T. R. Lettieri and G. G. Hembree, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 127, 566 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Inouye, Y.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, and L. Novotny, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kalkbrenner, T.

K. Lindfors, T. Kalkbrenner, P. Stoller, and V. Sandoghdar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 037401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kerker, M.

Larson, D. R.

D. R. Larson, W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, S. W. Clark, M. P. Bruchez, F. W. Wise, and W. W. Webb, Science 300, 1434 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lettieri, T. R.

T. R. Lettieri and G. G. Hembree, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 127, 566 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lindfors, K.

K. Lindfors, T. Kalkbrenner, P. Stoller, and V. Sandoghdar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 037401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lounis, B.

D. Boyer, P. Tamarat, A. Maali, B. Lounis, and M. Orrit, Science 297, 1160 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lukosz, W.

Maali, A.

D. Boyer, P. Tamarat, A. Maali, B. Lounis, and M. Orrit, Science 297, 1160 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mock, J. J.

S. Schultz, D. R. Smith, J. J. Mock, and D. A. Schultz, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97, 996 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Novotny, L.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, and L. Novotny, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Orrit, M.

D. Boyer, P. Tamarat, A. Maali, B. Lounis, and M. Orrit, Science 297, 1160 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pohl, D. W.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, and L. Novotny, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Richards-Kortum, R.

K. Sokolov, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 6, 651 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roch, J. F.

Y. Dumeige, F. Treussart, R. Alleaume, T. Gacoin, J. F. Roch, and P. Grangier, J. Lumin. 109, 61 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sandoghdar, V.

K. Lindfors, T. Kalkbrenner, P. Stoller, and V. Sandoghdar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 037401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schnapp, B. J.

J. Gelles, B. J. Schnapp, and M. P. Sheetz, Nature 331, 450 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schultz, D. A.

S. Schultz, D. R. Smith, J. J. Mock, and D. A. Schultz, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97, 996 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schultz, S.

S. Schultz, D. R. Smith, J. J. Mock, and D. A. Schultz, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97, 996 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sheetz, M. P.

J. Gelles, B. J. Schnapp, and M. P. Sheetz, Nature 331, 450 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, D. R.

S. Schultz, D. R. Smith, J. J. Mock, and D. A. Schultz, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97, 996 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sokolov, K.

K. Sokolov, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 6, 651 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stoller, P.

K. Lindfors, T. Kalkbrenner, P. Stoller, and V. Sandoghdar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 037401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tamarat, P.

D. Boyer, P. Tamarat, A. Maali, B. Lounis, and M. Orrit, Science 297, 1160 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Treussart, F.

Y. Dumeige, F. Treussart, R. Alleaume, T. Gacoin, J. F. Roch, and P. Grangier, J. Lumin. 109, 61 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tuchin, V. V.

V. V. Tuchin, ed., Tissue Optics (SPIE Press, 2000), Chap. 1.

Wang, D. S.

Webb, W. W.

D. R. Larson, W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, S. W. Clark, M. P. Bruchez, F. W. Wise, and W. W. Webb, Science 300, 1434 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weiss, S.

S. Weiss, Science 283, 1676 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, R. M.

D. R. Larson, W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, S. W. Clark, M. P. Bruchez, F. W. Wise, and W. W. Webb, Science 300, 1434 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wise, F. W.

D. R. Larson, W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, S. W. Clark, M. P. Bruchez, F. W. Wise, and W. W. Webb, Science 300, 1434 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zipfel, W. R.

D. R. Larson, W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, S. W. Clark, M. P. Bruchez, F. W. Wise, and W. W. Webb, Science 300, 1434 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biophys. Chem. (1)

R. D. Allen, Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biophys. Chem. 14, 265 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. (1)

K. Sokolov, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 6, 651 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, and L. Novotny, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Colloid Interface Sci. (1)

T. R. Lettieri and G. G. Hembree, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 127, 566 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin. (1)

Y. Dumeige, F. Treussart, R. Alleaume, T. Gacoin, J. F. Roch, and P. Grangier, J. Lumin. 109, 61 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Nature (1)

J. Gelles, B. J. Schnapp, and M. P. Sheetz, Nature 331, 450 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

K. Lindfors, T. Kalkbrenner, P. Stoller, and V. Sandoghdar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 037401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

S. Schultz, D. R. Smith, J. J. Mock, and D. A. Schultz, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97, 996 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (3)

S. Weiss, Science 283, 1676 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Boyer, P. Tamarat, A. Maali, B. Lounis, and M. Orrit, Science 297, 1160 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Larson, W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, S. W. Clark, M. P. Bruchez, F. W. Wise, and W. W. Webb, Science 300, 1434 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

V. V. Tuchin, ed., Tissue Optics (SPIE Press, 2000), Chap. 1.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Numerically generated image of cluster distribution; (b) histogram of the recovered cluster distribution. Theoretical curve of original Gaussian distribution (dash-dotted curve).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Image of sample 1, (b) histogram of sample 1. The manufacturer particle size distribution (shown by the dashed–dotted curve), (c) signal amplitude profile. Signals A and B correspond to 75 and 55 nm particles, respectively. The image processing threshold is marked by the dashed–dotted line.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

σ s = π 24 k 4 ( n 2 1 n 2 + 2 ) 2 d 6 ,
N ph = η τ Ψ σ s α R a corr exp ( k z d 2 ) ,

Metrics