Abstract

We propose several techniques to modulate the local amplitude of quasi-phase-matched (QPM) interactions in periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides and demonstrate apodization by using each of these techniques. When the hard edges are removed in the spatial profile of the nonlinear coupling, the sidelobes of the frequency tuning curves are suppressed by 13dB or more, compared with a uniform grating, consistent with theoretical predictions. The sidelobe-suppressed gratings are useful for frequency conversion devices in optical communication systems to minimize interchannel cross talk, while the amplitude modulation techniques in general have potential uses in applications that require altering the tuning curve shapes.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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