Abstract

We have measured a contrast of 6.5×108 from 10to25λD in visible light on the Extreme Adaptive Optics testbed, using a shaped pupil for diffraction suppression. The testbed was designed with a minimal number of high-quality optics to ensure low wavefront error and uses a phase-shifting diffraction interferometer for metrology. This level of contrast is within the regime needed for imaging young Jupiter-like planets, a primary application of high-contrast imaging. We have concluded that wavefront error, not pupil quality, is the limiting error source for improved contrast in our system.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. Burrows, M. Marley, W. B. Hubbard, J. I. Lunine, T. Guillot, D. Saumon, R. Freedman, D. Sudarsky, and C. Sharp, Astrophys. J. 491, 856 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Sivaramakrishnan, J. P. Lloyd, P. E. Hodge, and B. A. Macintosh, Astrophys. J. 581, L59 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. N. J. Kasdin, R. J. Vanderbei, D. N. Spergel, and M. G. Littman, Astrophys. J. 582, 1147 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. E. Sommargren, D. W. Phillion, M. A. Johnson, N. Q. Nguyen, A. Barty, F. J. Snell, D. R. Dillon, and L. S. Bradsher, in Proc. SPIE 4688, 316 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. Jacquinot and B. Roizen-Dossier, in Progress in Optics, E.Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, 1964), Vol. 3, Chap. 31.
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. N. Kasdin, R. J. Vanderbei, M. G. Littman, and D. N. Spergel, Appl. Opt. 44, 1117.
    [PubMed]

2003

N. J. Kasdin, R. J. Vanderbei, D. N. Spergel, and M. G. Littman, Astrophys. J. 582, 1147 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

G. E. Sommargren, D. W. Phillion, M. A. Johnson, N. Q. Nguyen, A. Barty, F. J. Snell, D. R. Dillon, and L. S. Bradsher, in Proc. SPIE 4688, 316 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Sivaramakrishnan, J. P. Lloyd, P. E. Hodge, and B. A. Macintosh, Astrophys. J. 581, L59 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1997

A. Burrows, M. Marley, W. B. Hubbard, J. I. Lunine, T. Guillot, D. Saumon, R. Freedman, D. Sudarsky, and C. Sharp, Astrophys. J. 491, 856 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Barty, A.

G. E. Sommargren, D. W. Phillion, M. A. Johnson, N. Q. Nguyen, A. Barty, F. J. Snell, D. R. Dillon, and L. S. Bradsher, in Proc. SPIE 4688, 316 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bradsher, L. S.

G. E. Sommargren, D. W. Phillion, M. A. Johnson, N. Q. Nguyen, A. Barty, F. J. Snell, D. R. Dillon, and L. S. Bradsher, in Proc. SPIE 4688, 316 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Burrows, A.

A. Burrows, M. Marley, W. B. Hubbard, J. I. Lunine, T. Guillot, D. Saumon, R. Freedman, D. Sudarsky, and C. Sharp, Astrophys. J. 491, 856 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dillon, D. R.

G. E. Sommargren, D. W. Phillion, M. A. Johnson, N. Q. Nguyen, A. Barty, F. J. Snell, D. R. Dillon, and L. S. Bradsher, in Proc. SPIE 4688, 316 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Freedman, R.

A. Burrows, M. Marley, W. B. Hubbard, J. I. Lunine, T. Guillot, D. Saumon, R. Freedman, D. Sudarsky, and C. Sharp, Astrophys. J. 491, 856 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Guillot, T.

A. Burrows, M. Marley, W. B. Hubbard, J. I. Lunine, T. Guillot, D. Saumon, R. Freedman, D. Sudarsky, and C. Sharp, Astrophys. J. 491, 856 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hodge, P. E.

A. Sivaramakrishnan, J. P. Lloyd, P. E. Hodge, and B. A. Macintosh, Astrophys. J. 581, L59 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hubbard, W. B.

A. Burrows, M. Marley, W. B. Hubbard, J. I. Lunine, T. Guillot, D. Saumon, R. Freedman, D. Sudarsky, and C. Sharp, Astrophys. J. 491, 856 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jacquinot, P.

P. Jacquinot and B. Roizen-Dossier, in Progress in Optics, E.Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, 1964), Vol. 3, Chap. 31.
[CrossRef]

Johnson, M. A.

G. E. Sommargren, D. W. Phillion, M. A. Johnson, N. Q. Nguyen, A. Barty, F. J. Snell, D. R. Dillon, and L. S. Bradsher, in Proc. SPIE 4688, 316 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kasdin, J. N.

Kasdin, N. J.

N. J. Kasdin, R. J. Vanderbei, D. N. Spergel, and M. G. Littman, Astrophys. J. 582, 1147 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Littman, M. G.

N. J. Kasdin, R. J. Vanderbei, D. N. Spergel, and M. G. Littman, Astrophys. J. 582, 1147 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Kasdin, R. J. Vanderbei, M. G. Littman, and D. N. Spergel, Appl. Opt. 44, 1117.
[PubMed]

Lloyd, J. P.

A. Sivaramakrishnan, J. P. Lloyd, P. E. Hodge, and B. A. Macintosh, Astrophys. J. 581, L59 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lunine, J. I.

A. Burrows, M. Marley, W. B. Hubbard, J. I. Lunine, T. Guillot, D. Saumon, R. Freedman, D. Sudarsky, and C. Sharp, Astrophys. J. 491, 856 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Macintosh, B. A.

A. Sivaramakrishnan, J. P. Lloyd, P. E. Hodge, and B. A. Macintosh, Astrophys. J. 581, L59 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Marley, M.

A. Burrows, M. Marley, W. B. Hubbard, J. I. Lunine, T. Guillot, D. Saumon, R. Freedman, D. Sudarsky, and C. Sharp, Astrophys. J. 491, 856 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, N. Q.

G. E. Sommargren, D. W. Phillion, M. A. Johnson, N. Q. Nguyen, A. Barty, F. J. Snell, D. R. Dillon, and L. S. Bradsher, in Proc. SPIE 4688, 316 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phillion, D. W.

G. E. Sommargren, D. W. Phillion, M. A. Johnson, N. Q. Nguyen, A. Barty, F. J. Snell, D. R. Dillon, and L. S. Bradsher, in Proc. SPIE 4688, 316 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Roizen-Dossier, B.

P. Jacquinot and B. Roizen-Dossier, in Progress in Optics, E.Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, 1964), Vol. 3, Chap. 31.
[CrossRef]

Saumon, D.

A. Burrows, M. Marley, W. B. Hubbard, J. I. Lunine, T. Guillot, D. Saumon, R. Freedman, D. Sudarsky, and C. Sharp, Astrophys. J. 491, 856 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sharp, C.

A. Burrows, M. Marley, W. B. Hubbard, J. I. Lunine, T. Guillot, D. Saumon, R. Freedman, D. Sudarsky, and C. Sharp, Astrophys. J. 491, 856 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sivaramakrishnan, A.

A. Sivaramakrishnan, J. P. Lloyd, P. E. Hodge, and B. A. Macintosh, Astrophys. J. 581, L59 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Snell, F. J.

G. E. Sommargren, D. W. Phillion, M. A. Johnson, N. Q. Nguyen, A. Barty, F. J. Snell, D. R. Dillon, and L. S. Bradsher, in Proc. SPIE 4688, 316 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sommargren, G. E.

G. E. Sommargren, D. W. Phillion, M. A. Johnson, N. Q. Nguyen, A. Barty, F. J. Snell, D. R. Dillon, and L. S. Bradsher, in Proc. SPIE 4688, 316 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Spergel, D. N.

N. J. Kasdin, R. J. Vanderbei, D. N. Spergel, and M. G. Littman, Astrophys. J. 582, 1147 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Kasdin, R. J. Vanderbei, M. G. Littman, and D. N. Spergel, Appl. Opt. 44, 1117.
[PubMed]

Sudarsky, D.

A. Burrows, M. Marley, W. B. Hubbard, J. I. Lunine, T. Guillot, D. Saumon, R. Freedman, D. Sudarsky, and C. Sharp, Astrophys. J. 491, 856 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vanderbei, R. J.

N. J. Kasdin, R. J. Vanderbei, D. N. Spergel, and M. G. Littman, Astrophys. J. 582, 1147 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Kasdin, R. J. Vanderbei, M. G. Littman, and D. N. Spergel, Appl. Opt. 44, 1117.
[PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Astrophys. J.

A. Burrows, M. Marley, W. B. Hubbard, J. I. Lunine, T. Guillot, D. Saumon, R. Freedman, D. Sudarsky, and C. Sharp, Astrophys. J. 491, 856 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Sivaramakrishnan, J. P. Lloyd, P. E. Hodge, and B. A. Macintosh, Astrophys. J. 581, L59 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Kasdin, R. J. Vanderbei, D. N. Spergel, and M. G. Littman, Astrophys. J. 582, 1147 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

G. E. Sommargren, D. W. Phillion, M. A. Johnson, N. Q. Nguyen, A. Barty, F. J. Snell, D. R. Dillon, and L. S. Bradsher, in Proc. SPIE 4688, 316 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other

P. Jacquinot and B. Roizen-Dossier, in Progress in Optics, E.Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, 1964), Vol. 3, Chap. 31.
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Simplified schematic of the ExAO testbed. The testbed has two modes of operation: imaging and PSDI. The fold mirror in the system can be replaced with a deformable mirror (DM) for active wavefront control.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Image of the unsaturated core overlaid on the saturated image where the core would be if it were not blocked by the focal plane mask. The X-shaped pattern is characteristic of the shaped pupil. The area outlined in white indicates the region of interest from 10 to 25 λ D . These images are superimposed with different scales.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Composite radial-average normalized-intensity far-field measurements made with the etched and the machined shaped pupils. The vertical lines indicate the edge of the focal plane mask in the two tests. The noise floor behind the focal plane mask is below 10 8 .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Comparison of experimental results with results simulated with the pupil mask and various wavefront errors. Curve 1, experimentally measured far-field contrast (as in Fig. 3). Curve 2, far-field simulation by use of the experimentally measured phase and a shaped pupil mask with the same specification error as the physical mask. Curve 3, simulation with the wavefront error reduced to 0.35 nm rms and the same flawed mask. Top curve 4, simulation with no phase error and the flawed mask; bottom curve 4, no phase error and a perfect mask.

Metrics