Abstract

We studied the incidence-angle dependence of the optical reflectivity difference in response to ultrathin films on transparent and opaque substrates. We found that the classical three-layer model reproduces the experimentally obtained angular dependence for a monolayer of xenon on Nb(110) and for a monolayer of protein molecules on functionalized glass. We explore the enhancement of the optical response near the Brewster angle (or its equivalent for opaque substrates) in thin film detection.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. M. A. Azzam and N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (Elsevier Science, 1987).
  2. P. Thomas, E. Nabighian, M. C. Bartelt, C. Y. Fong, and X. D. Zhu, Appl. Phys. A 79, 131 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. Nabighian, M. C. Bartelt, and X. D. Zhu, Phys. Rev. B 62, 1619 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Y. Fei, X. D. Zhu, L. F. Liu, H. B. Liu, Z. H. Chen, and G. Z. Yang, Phys. Rev. B 69, 233405 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. X. D. Zhu, W. Si, X. X. Xi, and Q. Jiang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 460 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. Chen, T. Zhao, Y. Y. Fei, H. B. Lu, Z. H. Chen, G. Z. Yang, and X. D. Zhu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2889 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. W. Schwarzacher, J. Gray, and X. D. Zhu, Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 6, C73 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. P. Landry, J. P. Gregg, and X. D. Zhu, Opt. Lett. 29, 581 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. D. E. McIntyre and D. E. Aspnes, Surf. Sci. 24, 417 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Wong and X. D. Zhu, Appl. Phys. A 63, 1 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  11. X. D. Zhu, Phys. Rev. B 69, 115407 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. X. D. Zhu, "Comparison of two optical techniques for label-free detection of biomolecular microarrays on solids," Opt. Commun. (to be published).
  13. J. H. Weaver, C. Krafka, D. W. Lynch, and E. E. Koch, Phys. Daten 18-1, 127 (1981).
  14. A. C. Sinnock, J. Phys. C 13, 2375 (1980)
    [CrossRef]
  15. N. Stoner, M. A. van Hove, S. Y. Tong, and M. B. Webb, Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 243 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Schena, Microarray Analysis (Wiley, 2003), p. 50.
  17. H. Arwin, Appl. Spectrosc. 40, 313 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  18. D. I. Svergun, M. V. Petoukhov, and M. H. J. Koch, Biophys. J. 80, 2946 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. J. Gray, P. Thomas, and X. D. Zhu, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3715 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (4)

P. Thomas, E. Nabighian, M. C. Bartelt, C. Y. Fong, and X. D. Zhu, Appl. Phys. A 79, 131 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Y. Fei, X. D. Zhu, L. F. Liu, H. B. Liu, Z. H. Chen, and G. Z. Yang, Phys. Rev. B 69, 233405 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Landry, J. P. Gregg, and X. D. Zhu, Opt. Lett. 29, 581 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. D. Zhu, Phys. Rev. B 69, 115407 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

W. Schwarzacher, J. Gray, and X. D. Zhu, Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 6, C73 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Schena, Microarray Analysis (Wiley, 2003), p. 50.

2002 (1)

F. Chen, T. Zhao, Y. Y. Fei, H. B. Lu, Z. H. Chen, G. Z. Yang, and X. D. Zhu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2889 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

X. D. Zhu, W. Si, X. X. Xi, and Q. Jiang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 460 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. I. Svergun, M. V. Petoukhov, and M. H. J. Koch, Biophys. J. 80, 2946 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Gray, P. Thomas, and X. D. Zhu, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3715 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

E. Nabighian, M. C. Bartelt, and X. D. Zhu, Phys. Rev. B 62, 1619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

A. Wong and X. D. Zhu, Appl. Phys. A 63, 1 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

R. M. A. Azzam and N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (Elsevier Science, 1987).

1986 (1)

1981 (1)

J. H. Weaver, C. Krafka, D. W. Lynch, and E. E. Koch, Phys. Daten 18-1, 127 (1981).

1980 (1)

A. C. Sinnock, J. Phys. C 13, 2375 (1980)
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

N. Stoner, M. A. van Hove, S. Y. Tong, and M. B. Webb, Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 243 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

J. D. E. McIntyre and D. E. Aspnes, Surf. Sci. 24, 417 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Arwin, H.

Aspnes, D. E.

J. D. E. McIntyre and D. E. Aspnes, Surf. Sci. 24, 417 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Azzam, R. M.

R. M. A. Azzam and N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (Elsevier Science, 1987).

Bartelt, M. C.

P. Thomas, E. Nabighian, M. C. Bartelt, C. Y. Fong, and X. D. Zhu, Appl. Phys. A 79, 131 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Nabighian, M. C. Bartelt, and X. D. Zhu, Phys. Rev. B 62, 1619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bashara, N. M.

R. M. A. Azzam and N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (Elsevier Science, 1987).

Chen, F.

F. Chen, T. Zhao, Y. Y. Fei, H. B. Lu, Z. H. Chen, G. Z. Yang, and X. D. Zhu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2889 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z. H.

Y. Y. Fei, X. D. Zhu, L. F. Liu, H. B. Liu, Z. H. Chen, and G. Z. Yang, Phys. Rev. B 69, 233405 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, T. Zhao, Y. Y. Fei, H. B. Lu, Z. H. Chen, G. Z. Yang, and X. D. Zhu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2889 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fei, Y. Y.

Y. Y. Fei, X. D. Zhu, L. F. Liu, H. B. Liu, Z. H. Chen, and G. Z. Yang, Phys. Rev. B 69, 233405 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, T. Zhao, Y. Y. Fei, H. B. Lu, Z. H. Chen, G. Z. Yang, and X. D. Zhu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2889 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fong, C. Y.

P. Thomas, E. Nabighian, M. C. Bartelt, C. Y. Fong, and X. D. Zhu, Appl. Phys. A 79, 131 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gray, J.

W. Schwarzacher, J. Gray, and X. D. Zhu, Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 6, C73 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Gray, P. Thomas, and X. D. Zhu, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3715 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gregg, J. P.

Jiang, Q.

X. D. Zhu, W. Si, X. X. Xi, and Q. Jiang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 460 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Koch, E. E.

J. H. Weaver, C. Krafka, D. W. Lynch, and E. E. Koch, Phys. Daten 18-1, 127 (1981).

Koch, M. H.

D. I. Svergun, M. V. Petoukhov, and M. H. J. Koch, Biophys. J. 80, 2946 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krafka, C.

J. H. Weaver, C. Krafka, D. W. Lynch, and E. E. Koch, Phys. Daten 18-1, 127 (1981).

Landry, J. P.

Liu, H. B.

Y. Y. Fei, X. D. Zhu, L. F. Liu, H. B. Liu, Z. H. Chen, and G. Z. Yang, Phys. Rev. B 69, 233405 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, L. F.

Y. Y. Fei, X. D. Zhu, L. F. Liu, H. B. Liu, Z. H. Chen, and G. Z. Yang, Phys. Rev. B 69, 233405 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lu, H. B.

F. Chen, T. Zhao, Y. Y. Fei, H. B. Lu, Z. H. Chen, G. Z. Yang, and X. D. Zhu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2889 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lynch, D. W.

J. H. Weaver, C. Krafka, D. W. Lynch, and E. E. Koch, Phys. Daten 18-1, 127 (1981).

McIntyre, J. D.

J. D. E. McIntyre and D. E. Aspnes, Surf. Sci. 24, 417 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Nabighian, E.

P. Thomas, E. Nabighian, M. C. Bartelt, C. Y. Fong, and X. D. Zhu, Appl. Phys. A 79, 131 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Nabighian, M. C. Bartelt, and X. D. Zhu, Phys. Rev. B 62, 1619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Petoukhov, M. V.

D. I. Svergun, M. V. Petoukhov, and M. H. J. Koch, Biophys. J. 80, 2946 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schena, M.

M. Schena, Microarray Analysis (Wiley, 2003), p. 50.

Schwarzacher, W.

W. Schwarzacher, J. Gray, and X. D. Zhu, Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 6, C73 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Si, W.

X. D. Zhu, W. Si, X. X. Xi, and Q. Jiang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 460 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sinnock, A. C.

A. C. Sinnock, J. Phys. C 13, 2375 (1980)
[CrossRef]

Stoner, N.

N. Stoner, M. A. van Hove, S. Y. Tong, and M. B. Webb, Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 243 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Svergun, D. I.

D. I. Svergun, M. V. Petoukhov, and M. H. J. Koch, Biophys. J. 80, 2946 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomas, P.

P. Thomas, E. Nabighian, M. C. Bartelt, C. Y. Fong, and X. D. Zhu, Appl. Phys. A 79, 131 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Gray, P. Thomas, and X. D. Zhu, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3715 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tong, S. Y.

N. Stoner, M. A. van Hove, S. Y. Tong, and M. B. Webb, Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 243 (1978).
[CrossRef]

van Hove, M. A.

N. Stoner, M. A. van Hove, S. Y. Tong, and M. B. Webb, Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 243 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Weaver, J. H.

J. H. Weaver, C. Krafka, D. W. Lynch, and E. E. Koch, Phys. Daten 18-1, 127 (1981).

Webb, M. B.

N. Stoner, M. A. van Hove, S. Y. Tong, and M. B. Webb, Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 243 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Wong, A.

A. Wong and X. D. Zhu, Appl. Phys. A 63, 1 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Xi, X. X.

X. D. Zhu, W. Si, X. X. Xi, and Q. Jiang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 460 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yang, G. Z.

Y. Y. Fei, X. D. Zhu, L. F. Liu, H. B. Liu, Z. H. Chen, and G. Z. Yang, Phys. Rev. B 69, 233405 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, T. Zhao, Y. Y. Fei, H. B. Lu, Z. H. Chen, G. Z. Yang, and X. D. Zhu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2889 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, T.

F. Chen, T. Zhao, Y. Y. Fei, H. B. Lu, Z. H. Chen, G. Z. Yang, and X. D. Zhu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2889 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, X. D.

J. P. Landry, J. P. Gregg, and X. D. Zhu, Opt. Lett. 29, 581 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Y. Fei, X. D. Zhu, L. F. Liu, H. B. Liu, Z. H. Chen, and G. Z. Yang, Phys. Rev. B 69, 233405 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Thomas, E. Nabighian, M. C. Bartelt, C. Y. Fong, and X. D. Zhu, Appl. Phys. A 79, 131 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. D. Zhu, Phys. Rev. B 69, 115407 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Schwarzacher, J. Gray, and X. D. Zhu, Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 6, C73 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, T. Zhao, Y. Y. Fei, H. B. Lu, Z. H. Chen, G. Z. Yang, and X. D. Zhu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2889 (2002).
[CrossRef]

X. D. Zhu, W. Si, X. X. Xi, and Q. Jiang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 460 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Gray, P. Thomas, and X. D. Zhu, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3715 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Nabighian, M. C. Bartelt, and X. D. Zhu, Phys. Rev. B 62, 1619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Wong and X. D. Zhu, Appl. Phys. A 63, 1 (1996).
[CrossRef]

X. D. Zhu, "Comparison of two optical techniques for label-free detection of biomolecular microarrays on solids," Opt. Commun. (to be published).

Appl. Phys. A (2)

P. Thomas, E. Nabighian, M. C. Bartelt, C. Y. Fong, and X. D. Zhu, Appl. Phys. A 79, 131 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Wong and X. D. Zhu, Appl. Phys. A 63, 1 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

X. D. Zhu, W. Si, X. X. Xi, and Q. Jiang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 460 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, T. Zhao, Y. Y. Fei, H. B. Lu, Z. H. Chen, G. Z. Yang, and X. D. Zhu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2889 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

Biophys. J. (1)

D. I. Svergun, M. V. Petoukhov, and M. H. J. Koch, Biophys. J. 80, 2946 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. (1)

W. Schwarzacher, J. Gray, and X. D. Zhu, Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 6, C73 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. C (1)

A. C. Sinnock, J. Phys. C 13, 2375 (1980)
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Daten (1)

J. H. Weaver, C. Krafka, D. W. Lynch, and E. E. Koch, Phys. Daten 18-1, 127 (1981).

Phys. Rev. B (3)

X. D. Zhu, Phys. Rev. B 69, 115407 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Nabighian, M. C. Bartelt, and X. D. Zhu, Phys. Rev. B 62, 1619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Y. Fei, X. D. Zhu, L. F. Liu, H. B. Liu, Z. H. Chen, and G. Z. Yang, Phys. Rev. B 69, 233405 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

N. Stoner, M. A. van Hove, S. Y. Tong, and M. B. Webb, Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 243 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

J. Gray, P. Thomas, and X. D. Zhu, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3715 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Surf. Sci. (1)

J. D. E. McIntyre and D. E. Aspnes, Surf. Sci. 24, 417 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

X. D. Zhu, "Comparison of two optical techniques for label-free detection of biomolecular microarrays on solids," Opt. Commun. (to be published).

M. Schena, Microarray Analysis (Wiley, 2003), p. 50.

R. M. A. Azzam and N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (Elsevier Science, 1987).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Δ p Δ s in response to a monolayer of Xe on Nb(110) versus the incidence angle. Open circles, measured Im { Δ p Δ s } ; filled diamonds, measured Re { Δ p Δ s } ; solid curve, Im { Δ p Δ s } calculated by using Eq. (1) and the parameters listed in the text; dashed curve, Re { Δ p Δ s } calculated by using Eq. (1).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

( Φ p Φ p 0 ) ( Φ s Φ s 0 ) in response to a monolayer film of BSA molecules on glass versus the incidence angle (open circles and filled squares). The measured Brewster angle is θ B = 56.48 ° . Top inset, Φ p Φ s versus the incidence angle calculated for a bare glass (dotted curve), an epoxide-derivatized glass (dashed curve), and an epoxide-derivatized glass covered with a monolayer of BSA molecules (solid curve). The difference between the solid curve and the dashed curve yields the solid curve in the main figure. Bottom inset, OI-RD image of the BSA spots obtained at θ = 55 ° . The scale bar is 200 μ m .

Equations (1)

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Δ p Δ s i [ 4 π ε s tan 2 θ cos θ ε 0 1 2 ( ε s ε 0 ) ( ε s ε 0 tan 2 θ ) ] ( ε d ε s ) ( ε d ε 0 ) ε d ( d λ ) ,

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