Abstract

We studied the incidence-angle dependence of the optical reflectivity difference in response to ultrathin films on transparent and opaque substrates. We found that the classical three-layer model reproduces the experimentally obtained angular dependence for a monolayer of xenon on Nb(110) and for a monolayer of protein molecules on functionalized glass. We explore the enhancement of the optical response near the Brewster angle (or its equivalent for opaque substrates) in thin film detection.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. M. A. Azzam and N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (Elsevier Science, 1987).
  2. P. Thomas, E. Nabighian, M. C. Bartelt, C. Y. Fong, and X. D. Zhu, Appl. Phys. A 79, 131 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. Nabighian, M. C. Bartelt, and X. D. Zhu, Phys. Rev. B 62, 1619 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Y. Fei, X. D. Zhu, L. F. Liu, H. B. Liu, Z. H. Chen, and G. Z. Yang, Phys. Rev. B 69, 233405 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. X. D. Zhu, W. Si, X. X. Xi, and Q. Jiang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 460 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. Chen, T. Zhao, Y. Y. Fei, H. B. Lu, Z. H. Chen, G. Z. Yang, and X. D. Zhu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2889 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. W. Schwarzacher, J. Gray, and X. D. Zhu, Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 6, C73 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. P. Landry, J. P. Gregg, and X. D. Zhu, Opt. Lett. 29, 581 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. D. E. McIntyre and D. E. Aspnes, Surf. Sci. 24, 417 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Wong and X. D. Zhu, Appl. Phys. A 63, 1 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  11. X. D. Zhu, Phys. Rev. B 69, 115407 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. X. D. Zhu, "Comparison of two optical techniques for label-free detection of biomolecular microarrays on solids," Opt. Commun. (to be published).
  13. J. H. Weaver, C. Krafka, D. W. Lynch, and E. E. Koch, Phys. Daten 18-1, 127 (1981).
  14. A. C. Sinnock, J. Phys. C 13, 2375 (1980)
    [CrossRef]
  15. N. Stoner, M. A. van Hove, S. Y. Tong, and M. B. Webb, Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 243 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Schena, Microarray Analysis (Wiley, 2003), p. 50.
  17. H. Arwin, Appl. Spectrosc. 40, 313 (1986).
  18. D. I. Svergun, M. V. Petoukhov, and M. H. J. Koch, Biophys. J. 80, 2946 (2001).
  19. J. Gray, P. Thomas, and X. D. Zhu, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3715 (2001).

2004

P. Thomas, E. Nabighian, M. C. Bartelt, C. Y. Fong, and X. D. Zhu, Appl. Phys. A 79, 131 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Y. Fei, X. D. Zhu, L. F. Liu, H. B. Liu, Z. H. Chen, and G. Z. Yang, Phys. Rev. B 69, 233405 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. D. Zhu, Phys. Rev. B 69, 115407 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Landry, J. P. Gregg, and X. D. Zhu, Opt. Lett. 29, 581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

M. Schena, Microarray Analysis (Wiley, 2003), p. 50.

W. Schwarzacher, J. Gray, and X. D. Zhu, Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 6, C73 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

F. Chen, T. Zhao, Y. Y. Fei, H. B. Lu, Z. H. Chen, G. Z. Yang, and X. D. Zhu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2889 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

X. D. Zhu, W. Si, X. X. Xi, and Q. Jiang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 460 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. I. Svergun, M. V. Petoukhov, and M. H. J. Koch, Biophys. J. 80, 2946 (2001).

J. Gray, P. Thomas, and X. D. Zhu, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3715 (2001).

2000

E. Nabighian, M. C. Bartelt, and X. D. Zhu, Phys. Rev. B 62, 1619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996

A. Wong and X. D. Zhu, Appl. Phys. A 63, 1 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1987

R. M. A. Azzam and N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (Elsevier Science, 1987).

1986

1981

J. H. Weaver, C. Krafka, D. W. Lynch, and E. E. Koch, Phys. Daten 18-1, 127 (1981).

1980

A. C. Sinnock, J. Phys. C 13, 2375 (1980)
[CrossRef]

1978

N. Stoner, M. A. van Hove, S. Y. Tong, and M. B. Webb, Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 243 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1971

J. D. E. McIntyre and D. E. Aspnes, Surf. Sci. 24, 417 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Arwin, H.

Aspnes, D. E.

J. D. E. McIntyre and D. E. Aspnes, Surf. Sci. 24, 417 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Azzam, R. M.

R. M. A. Azzam and N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (Elsevier Science, 1987).

Bartelt, M. C.

P. Thomas, E. Nabighian, M. C. Bartelt, C. Y. Fong, and X. D. Zhu, Appl. Phys. A 79, 131 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Nabighian, M. C. Bartelt, and X. D. Zhu, Phys. Rev. B 62, 1619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bashara, N. M.

R. M. A. Azzam and N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (Elsevier Science, 1987).

Chen, F.

F. Chen, T. Zhao, Y. Y. Fei, H. B. Lu, Z. H. Chen, G. Z. Yang, and X. D. Zhu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2889 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z. H.

Y. Y. Fei, X. D. Zhu, L. F. Liu, H. B. Liu, Z. H. Chen, and G. Z. Yang, Phys. Rev. B 69, 233405 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, T. Zhao, Y. Y. Fei, H. B. Lu, Z. H. Chen, G. Z. Yang, and X. D. Zhu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2889 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fei, Y. Y.

Y. Y. Fei, X. D. Zhu, L. F. Liu, H. B. Liu, Z. H. Chen, and G. Z. Yang, Phys. Rev. B 69, 233405 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, T. Zhao, Y. Y. Fei, H. B. Lu, Z. H. Chen, G. Z. Yang, and X. D. Zhu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2889 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fong, C. Y.

P. Thomas, E. Nabighian, M. C. Bartelt, C. Y. Fong, and X. D. Zhu, Appl. Phys. A 79, 131 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gray, J.

W. Schwarzacher, J. Gray, and X. D. Zhu, Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 6, C73 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Gray, P. Thomas, and X. D. Zhu, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3715 (2001).

Gregg, J. P.

Jiang, Q.

X. D. Zhu, W. Si, X. X. Xi, and Q. Jiang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 460 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Koch, E. E.

J. H. Weaver, C. Krafka, D. W. Lynch, and E. E. Koch, Phys. Daten 18-1, 127 (1981).

Koch, M. H.

D. I. Svergun, M. V. Petoukhov, and M. H. J. Koch, Biophys. J. 80, 2946 (2001).

Krafka, C.

J. H. Weaver, C. Krafka, D. W. Lynch, and E. E. Koch, Phys. Daten 18-1, 127 (1981).

Landry, J. P.

Liu, H. B.

Y. Y. Fei, X. D. Zhu, L. F. Liu, H. B. Liu, Z. H. Chen, and G. Z. Yang, Phys. Rev. B 69, 233405 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, L. F.

Y. Y. Fei, X. D. Zhu, L. F. Liu, H. B. Liu, Z. H. Chen, and G. Z. Yang, Phys. Rev. B 69, 233405 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lu, H. B.

F. Chen, T. Zhao, Y. Y. Fei, H. B. Lu, Z. H. Chen, G. Z. Yang, and X. D. Zhu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2889 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lynch, D. W.

J. H. Weaver, C. Krafka, D. W. Lynch, and E. E. Koch, Phys. Daten 18-1, 127 (1981).

McIntyre, J. D.

J. D. E. McIntyre and D. E. Aspnes, Surf. Sci. 24, 417 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Nabighian, E.

P. Thomas, E. Nabighian, M. C. Bartelt, C. Y. Fong, and X. D. Zhu, Appl. Phys. A 79, 131 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Nabighian, M. C. Bartelt, and X. D. Zhu, Phys. Rev. B 62, 1619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Petoukhov, M. V.

D. I. Svergun, M. V. Petoukhov, and M. H. J. Koch, Biophys. J. 80, 2946 (2001).

Schena, M.

M. Schena, Microarray Analysis (Wiley, 2003), p. 50.

Schwarzacher, W.

W. Schwarzacher, J. Gray, and X. D. Zhu, Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 6, C73 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Si, W.

X. D. Zhu, W. Si, X. X. Xi, and Q. Jiang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 460 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sinnock, A. C.

A. C. Sinnock, J. Phys. C 13, 2375 (1980)
[CrossRef]

Stoner, N.

N. Stoner, M. A. van Hove, S. Y. Tong, and M. B. Webb, Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 243 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Svergun, D. I.

D. I. Svergun, M. V. Petoukhov, and M. H. J. Koch, Biophys. J. 80, 2946 (2001).

Thomas, P.

P. Thomas, E. Nabighian, M. C. Bartelt, C. Y. Fong, and X. D. Zhu, Appl. Phys. A 79, 131 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Gray, P. Thomas, and X. D. Zhu, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3715 (2001).

Tong, S. Y.

N. Stoner, M. A. van Hove, S. Y. Tong, and M. B. Webb, Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 243 (1978).
[CrossRef]

van Hove, M. A.

N. Stoner, M. A. van Hove, S. Y. Tong, and M. B. Webb, Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 243 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Weaver, J. H.

J. H. Weaver, C. Krafka, D. W. Lynch, and E. E. Koch, Phys. Daten 18-1, 127 (1981).

Webb, M. B.

N. Stoner, M. A. van Hove, S. Y. Tong, and M. B. Webb, Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 243 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Wong, A.

A. Wong and X. D. Zhu, Appl. Phys. A 63, 1 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Xi, X. X.

X. D. Zhu, W. Si, X. X. Xi, and Q. Jiang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 460 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yang, G. Z.

Y. Y. Fei, X. D. Zhu, L. F. Liu, H. B. Liu, Z. H. Chen, and G. Z. Yang, Phys. Rev. B 69, 233405 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, T. Zhao, Y. Y. Fei, H. B. Lu, Z. H. Chen, G. Z. Yang, and X. D. Zhu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2889 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, T.

F. Chen, T. Zhao, Y. Y. Fei, H. B. Lu, Z. H. Chen, G. Z. Yang, and X. D. Zhu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2889 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, X. D.

P. Thomas, E. Nabighian, M. C. Bartelt, C. Y. Fong, and X. D. Zhu, Appl. Phys. A 79, 131 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. D. Zhu, Phys. Rev. B 69, 115407 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Y. Fei, X. D. Zhu, L. F. Liu, H. B. Liu, Z. H. Chen, and G. Z. Yang, Phys. Rev. B 69, 233405 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Landry, J. P. Gregg, and X. D. Zhu, Opt. Lett. 29, 581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Schwarzacher, J. Gray, and X. D. Zhu, Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 6, C73 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, T. Zhao, Y. Y. Fei, H. B. Lu, Z. H. Chen, G. Z. Yang, and X. D. Zhu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2889 (2002).
[CrossRef]

X. D. Zhu, W. Si, X. X. Xi, and Q. Jiang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 460 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Gray, P. Thomas, and X. D. Zhu, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3715 (2001).

E. Nabighian, M. C. Bartelt, and X. D. Zhu, Phys. Rev. B 62, 1619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Wong and X. D. Zhu, Appl. Phys. A 63, 1 (1996).
[CrossRef]

X. D. Zhu, "Comparison of two optical techniques for label-free detection of biomolecular microarrays on solids," Opt. Commun. (to be published).

Appl. Phys. A

P. Thomas, E. Nabighian, M. C. Bartelt, C. Y. Fong, and X. D. Zhu, Appl. Phys. A 79, 131 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Wong and X. D. Zhu, Appl. Phys. A 63, 1 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

X. D. Zhu, W. Si, X. X. Xi, and Q. Jiang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 460 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, T. Zhao, Y. Y. Fei, H. B. Lu, Z. H. Chen, G. Z. Yang, and X. D. Zhu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2889 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc.

Biophys. J.

D. I. Svergun, M. V. Petoukhov, and M. H. J. Koch, Biophys. J. 80, 2946 (2001).

Electrochem. Solid-State Lett.

W. Schwarzacher, J. Gray, and X. D. Zhu, Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 6, C73 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. C

A. C. Sinnock, J. Phys. C 13, 2375 (1980)
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Daten

J. H. Weaver, C. Krafka, D. W. Lynch, and E. E. Koch, Phys. Daten 18-1, 127 (1981).

Phys. Rev. B

X. D. Zhu, Phys. Rev. B 69, 115407 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Nabighian, M. C. Bartelt, and X. D. Zhu, Phys. Rev. B 62, 1619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Y. Fei, X. D. Zhu, L. F. Liu, H. B. Liu, Z. H. Chen, and G. Z. Yang, Phys. Rev. B 69, 233405 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

N. Stoner, M. A. van Hove, S. Y. Tong, and M. B. Webb, Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 243 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

J. Gray, P. Thomas, and X. D. Zhu, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3715 (2001).

Surf. Sci.

J. D. E. McIntyre and D. E. Aspnes, Surf. Sci. 24, 417 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Other

X. D. Zhu, "Comparison of two optical techniques for label-free detection of biomolecular microarrays on solids," Opt. Commun. (to be published).

M. Schena, Microarray Analysis (Wiley, 2003), p. 50.

R. M. A. Azzam and N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (Elsevier Science, 1987).

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