Abstract

Recently an in vivo high-resolution backward-mode photoacoustic microscope was developed that shows potential for applications in dermatology and related cancer research. However, the limited depth of focus of the large-numerical-aperture (NA) ultrasonic lens employed in this system causes the image quality to deteriorate significantly in the out-of-focus region. To solve this problem, we devised and explored, for the first time to our knowledge, a virtual-detector-based synthetic-aperture focusing technique, combined with coherence weighting, for photoacoustic microscopy with such a large-NA transducer. Images of phantoms show that the proposed technique improves the 6dB lateral resolution from 49379to4653μm and increases the signal-to-noise ratio by up to 29dB, depending on the distance from the ultrasonic focal point. In vivo experiments show that the technique also provides a clearer representation of the vascular distribution in the rat’s scalp.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 803 (2003).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. P.-C. Li and M.-L. Li, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 50, 128 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

G. Ku, X. Wang, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Appl. Opt. 41, 770 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Niederhauser, M. Jaeger, R. Lemor, P. Weber, and M. Frenz, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24, 436 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Opt. Lett. 30, 625 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

C.-K. Liao, M.-L. Li, and P.-C. Li, Opt. Lett. 29, 2506 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-L. Li, W. J. Guan, and P.-C. Li, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 51, 63 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

P.-C. Li and M.-L. Li, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 50, 128 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 803 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Viator, L. O. Svaasand, G. Aguilar, B. Choi, and J. S. Nelson, in Proc. SPIE 4960, 14 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2000 (1)

E. V. Savateeva, A. A. Karabutov, B. Bell, R. Johnigan, M. Motamedi, and A. A. Oraevsky, in Proc. SPIE 3597, 55 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

R. O. Esenaliev, A. A. Karabutov, and A. A. Oraevsky, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 981 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Aguilar, G.

J. A. Viator, L. O. Svaasand, G. Aguilar, B. Choi, and J. S. Nelson, in Proc. SPIE 4960, 14 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bell, B.

E. V. Savateeva, A. A. Karabutov, B. Bell, R. Johnigan, M. Motamedi, and A. A. Oraevsky, in Proc. SPIE 3597, 55 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Choi, B.

J. A. Viator, L. O. Svaasand, G. Aguilar, B. Choi, and J. S. Nelson, in Proc. SPIE 4960, 14 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Deyo, D. J.

Esenaliev, R. O.

R. O. Esenaliev, I. V. Larina, K. V. Larin, D. J. Deyo, M. Motamedi, and D. S. Prough, Appl. Opt. 41, 4722 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. O. Esenaliev, A. A. Karabutov, and A. A. Oraevsky, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 981 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Frenz, M.

J. J. Niederhauser, M. Jaeger, R. Lemor, P. Weber, and M. Frenz, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24, 436 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guan, W. J.

M.-L. Li, W. J. Guan, and P.-C. Li, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 51, 63 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jaeger, M.

J. J. Niederhauser, M. Jaeger, R. Lemor, P. Weber, and M. Frenz, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24, 436 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnigan, R.

E. V. Savateeva, A. A. Karabutov, B. Bell, R. Johnigan, M. Motamedi, and A. A. Oraevsky, in Proc. SPIE 3597, 55 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Karabutov, A. A.

E. V. Savateeva, A. A. Karabutov, B. Bell, R. Johnigan, M. Motamedi, and A. A. Oraevsky, in Proc. SPIE 3597, 55 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. O. Esenaliev, A. A. Karabutov, and A. A. Oraevsky, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 981 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ku, G.

G. Ku, X. Wang, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Appl. Opt. 41, 770 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 803 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Larin, K. V.

Larina, I. V.

Lemor, R.

J. J. Niederhauser, M. Jaeger, R. Lemor, P. Weber, and M. Frenz, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24, 436 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, M.-L.

M.-L. Li, W. J. Guan, and P.-C. Li, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 51, 63 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-K. Liao, M.-L. Li, and P.-C. Li, Opt. Lett. 29, 2506 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P.-C. Li and M.-L. Li, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 50, 128 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, P.-C.

M.-L. Li, W. J. Guan, and P.-C. Li, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 51, 63 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-K. Liao, M.-L. Li, and P.-C. Li, Opt. Lett. 29, 2506 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P.-C. Li and M.-L. Li, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 50, 128 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liao, C.-K.

Maslov, K.

Motamedi, M.

R. O. Esenaliev, I. V. Larina, K. V. Larin, D. J. Deyo, M. Motamedi, and D. S. Prough, Appl. Opt. 41, 4722 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. V. Savateeva, A. A. Karabutov, B. Bell, R. Johnigan, M. Motamedi, and A. A. Oraevsky, in Proc. SPIE 3597, 55 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, J. S.

J. A. Viator, L. O. Svaasand, G. Aguilar, B. Choi, and J. S. Nelson, in Proc. SPIE 4960, 14 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Niederhauser, J. J.

J. J. Niederhauser, M. Jaeger, R. Lemor, P. Weber, and M. Frenz, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24, 436 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oraevsky, A. A.

E. V. Savateeva, A. A. Karabutov, B. Bell, R. Johnigan, M. Motamedi, and A. A. Oraevsky, in Proc. SPIE 3597, 55 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. O. Esenaliev, A. A. Karabutov, and A. A. Oraevsky, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 981 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pang, Y.

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 803 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prough, D. S.

Savateeva, E. V.

E. V. Savateeva, A. A. Karabutov, B. Bell, R. Johnigan, M. Motamedi, and A. A. Oraevsky, in Proc. SPIE 3597, 55 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stoica, G.

G. Ku, X. Wang, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Appl. Opt. 41, 770 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Opt. Lett. 30, 625 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 803 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Svaasand, L. O.

J. A. Viator, L. O. Svaasand, G. Aguilar, B. Choi, and J. S. Nelson, in Proc. SPIE 4960, 14 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Viator, J. A.

J. A. Viator, L. O. Svaasand, G. Aguilar, B. Choi, and J. S. Nelson, in Proc. SPIE 4960, 14 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L. V.

G. Ku, X. Wang, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Appl. Opt. 41, 770 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Opt. Lett. 30, 625 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 803 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

G. Ku, X. Wang, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Appl. Opt. 41, 770 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 803 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weber, P.

J. J. Niederhauser, M. Jaeger, R. Lemor, P. Weber, and M. Frenz, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24, 436 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, X.

G. Ku, X. Wang, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Appl. Opt. 41, 770 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 803 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. O. Esenaliev, A. A. Karabutov, and A. A. Oraevsky, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 981 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging (1)

J. J. Niederhauser, M. Jaeger, R. Lemor, P. Weber, and M. Frenz, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24, 436 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control (2)

M.-L. Li, W. J. Guan, and P.-C. Li, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 51, 63 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P.-C. Li and M.-L. Li, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 50, 128 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Biotechnol. (1)

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 803 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. SPIE (2)

E. V. Savateeva, A. A. Karabutov, B. Bell, R. Johnigan, M. Motamedi, and A. A. Oraevsky, in Proc. SPIE 3597, 55 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Viator, L. O. Svaasand, G. Aguilar, B. Choi, and J. S. Nelson, in Proc. SPIE 4960, 14 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the virtual-detector concept; (b) illustration of CF weighting.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

B-scan images of an Intralipid phantom containing an embedded 6 μ m carbon fiber, which was scanned at various depths: (a) original image, (b) SAFT + CF weighted image.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a), (b) In vivo projected C-scan images of the rat’s scalp; (c), (d) in vivo B-scan images that correspond to the scanning positions indicated by the white dashed lines in (a) and (b), respectively. (a), (c) original; (b), (d) SAFT + CF weighted.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Improvement of the 6 dB Lateral and Axial Resolution as Well as the SNR

Metrics