Abstract

We demonstrate 1550 nm photon-counting optical communications with a NbN-nanowire superconducting single-photon detector. Source data are encoded with a rate-1/2 forward-error correcting code and transmitted by use of 32-ary pulse-position modulation at 5 and 10 GHz slot rates. Error-free performance is obtained with 0.5 detected photon per source bit at a source data rate of 781Mbitss. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest reported data rate for a photon-counting receiver.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. R. Pierce, IEEE Trans. Commun. COM-26, 1819 (1978).
    [Crossref]
  2. J. Katz, TDA Progress Report 42-70 (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 1982), p. 95, http://tmo.jpl.nasa.gov/ipnlowbarprogresslowbarreport/tda.cfm.
  3. K. J. Gordon, V. Fernandez, P. D. Townsend, and G. S. Buller, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 900 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  4. B. S. Robinson, D. O. Caplan, M. L. Stevens, R. J. Barron, E. A. Dauler, and S. A. Hamilton, in 2005 Digest of the LEOS Summer Topical Meetings (IEEE, 2005), paper TuA3.1.
  5. J. Zhang, W. Slysz, A. Verevkin, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Korneev, A. Lipatov, G. N. Gol'tsman, and R. Sobolewski, IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 13, 180 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  6. G. N. Gol'tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. L. A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dsardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  7. S. Cherednichenko, P. Yahoubov, K. Il'in, G. Gol'tsman, and E. Gershenzon, in Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology (Harvard U., 1997), p. 245.
  8. J. K. W. Yang, E. Dauler, A. Ferri, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, G. Gol'tsman, B. Voronov, R. Sobolewski, W. E. Keicher, and K. K. Berggren, IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 15, 626 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  9. A. M. Kadin and M. W. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3938 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  10. A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, W. E. Keicher, J. K. W. Yang, K. K. Berggren, G. Gol'tsman, and B. Voronov, "Kinetic-inductance-limited reset time of superconducting nanowire photon counters," arXiv.org print/archive physics/0510238 (October 26, 2005).
  11. B. E. Moision and J. Hamkins, Interplanetary Network Progress Report 42-161 (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 2005), p. 1, http://tmo.jpl.nasa.gov/ipnlowbarprogresslowbarreport/ipn.cfm.
  12. D. O. Caplan, B. S. Robinson, R. J. Murphy, and M. L. Stevens, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference 2005 (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper PDP32.

2005 (5)

B. S. Robinson, D. O. Caplan, M. L. Stevens, R. J. Barron, E. A. Dauler, and S. A. Hamilton, in 2005 Digest of the LEOS Summer Topical Meetings (IEEE, 2005), paper TuA3.1.

J. K. W. Yang, E. Dauler, A. Ferri, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, G. Gol'tsman, B. Voronov, R. Sobolewski, W. E. Keicher, and K. K. Berggren, IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 15, 626 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, W. E. Keicher, J. K. W. Yang, K. K. Berggren, G. Gol'tsman, and B. Voronov, "Kinetic-inductance-limited reset time of superconducting nanowire photon counters," arXiv.org print/archive physics/0510238 (October 26, 2005).

B. E. Moision and J. Hamkins, Interplanetary Network Progress Report 42-161 (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 2005), p. 1, http://tmo.jpl.nasa.gov/ipnlowbarprogresslowbarreport/ipn.cfm.

D. O. Caplan, B. S. Robinson, R. J. Murphy, and M. L. Stevens, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference 2005 (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper PDP32.

2004 (1)

K. J. Gordon, V. Fernandez, P. D. Townsend, and G. S. Buller, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 900 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

J. Zhang, W. Slysz, A. Verevkin, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Korneev, A. Lipatov, G. N. Gol'tsman, and R. Sobolewski, IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 13, 180 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

G. N. Gol'tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. L. A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dsardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705 (2001).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

S. Cherednichenko, P. Yahoubov, K. Il'in, G. Gol'tsman, and E. Gershenzon, in Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology (Harvard U., 1997), p. 245.

1996 (1)

A. M. Kadin and M. W. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3938 (1996).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

J. Katz, TDA Progress Report 42-70 (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 1982), p. 95, http://tmo.jpl.nasa.gov/ipnlowbarprogresslowbarreport/tda.cfm.

1978 (1)

J. R. Pierce, IEEE Trans. Commun. COM-26, 1819 (1978).
[Crossref]

Barron, R. J.

B. S. Robinson, D. O. Caplan, M. L. Stevens, R. J. Barron, E. A. Dauler, and S. A. Hamilton, in 2005 Digest of the LEOS Summer Topical Meetings (IEEE, 2005), paper TuA3.1.

Berggren, K. K.

J. K. W. Yang, E. Dauler, A. Ferri, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, G. Gol'tsman, B. Voronov, R. Sobolewski, W. E. Keicher, and K. K. Berggren, IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 15, 626 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, W. E. Keicher, J. K. W. Yang, K. K. Berggren, G. Gol'tsman, and B. Voronov, "Kinetic-inductance-limited reset time of superconducting nanowire photon counters," arXiv.org print/archive physics/0510238 (October 26, 2005).

Buller, G. S.

K. J. Gordon, V. Fernandez, P. D. Townsend, and G. S. Buller, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 900 (2004).
[Crossref]

Caplan, D. O.

B. S. Robinson, D. O. Caplan, M. L. Stevens, R. J. Barron, E. A. Dauler, and S. A. Hamilton, in 2005 Digest of the LEOS Summer Topical Meetings (IEEE, 2005), paper TuA3.1.

D. O. Caplan, B. S. Robinson, R. J. Murphy, and M. L. Stevens, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference 2005 (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper PDP32.

Cherednichenko, S.

S. Cherednichenko, P. Yahoubov, K. Il'in, G. Gol'tsman, and E. Gershenzon, in Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology (Harvard U., 1997), p. 245.

Chulkova, G.

J. Zhang, W. Slysz, A. Verevkin, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Korneev, A. Lipatov, G. N. Gol'tsman, and R. Sobolewski, IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 13, 180 (2003).
[Crossref]

G. N. Gol'tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. L. A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dsardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705 (2001).
[Crossref]

Dauler, E.

J. K. W. Yang, E. Dauler, A. Ferri, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, G. Gol'tsman, B. Voronov, R. Sobolewski, W. E. Keicher, and K. K. Berggren, IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 15, 626 (2005).
[Crossref]

Dauler, E. A.

A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, W. E. Keicher, J. K. W. Yang, K. K. Berggren, G. Gol'tsman, and B. Voronov, "Kinetic-inductance-limited reset time of superconducting nanowire photon counters," arXiv.org print/archive physics/0510238 (October 26, 2005).

B. S. Robinson, D. O. Caplan, M. L. Stevens, R. J. Barron, E. A. Dauler, and S. A. Hamilton, in 2005 Digest of the LEOS Summer Topical Meetings (IEEE, 2005), paper TuA3.1.

Dsardanov, A.

G. N. Gol'tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. L. A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dsardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705 (2001).
[Crossref]

Fernandez, V.

K. J. Gordon, V. Fernandez, P. D. Townsend, and G. S. Buller, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 900 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ferri, A.

J. K. W. Yang, E. Dauler, A. Ferri, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, G. Gol'tsman, B. Voronov, R. Sobolewski, W. E. Keicher, and K. K. Berggren, IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 15, 626 (2005).
[Crossref]

Gershenzon, E.

S. Cherednichenko, P. Yahoubov, K. Il'in, G. Gol'tsman, and E. Gershenzon, in Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology (Harvard U., 1997), p. 245.

Gol'tsman, G.

J. K. W. Yang, E. Dauler, A. Ferri, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, G. Gol'tsman, B. Voronov, R. Sobolewski, W. E. Keicher, and K. K. Berggren, IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 15, 626 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, W. E. Keicher, J. K. W. Yang, K. K. Berggren, G. Gol'tsman, and B. Voronov, "Kinetic-inductance-limited reset time of superconducting nanowire photon counters," arXiv.org print/archive physics/0510238 (October 26, 2005).

S. Cherednichenko, P. Yahoubov, K. Il'in, G. Gol'tsman, and E. Gershenzon, in Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology (Harvard U., 1997), p. 245.

Gol'tsman, G. N.

J. Zhang, W. Slysz, A. Verevkin, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Korneev, A. Lipatov, G. N. Gol'tsman, and R. Sobolewski, IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 13, 180 (2003).
[Crossref]

G. N. Gol'tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. L. A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dsardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705 (2001).
[Crossref]

Gordon, K. J.

K. J. Gordon, V. Fernandez, P. D. Townsend, and G. S. Buller, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 900 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hamilton, S. A.

B. S. Robinson, D. O. Caplan, M. L. Stevens, R. J. Barron, E. A. Dauler, and S. A. Hamilton, in 2005 Digest of the LEOS Summer Topical Meetings (IEEE, 2005), paper TuA3.1.

Hamkins, J.

B. E. Moision and J. Hamkins, Interplanetary Network Progress Report 42-161 (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 2005), p. 1, http://tmo.jpl.nasa.gov/ipnlowbarprogresslowbarreport/ipn.cfm.

Il'in, K.

S. Cherednichenko, P. Yahoubov, K. Il'in, G. Gol'tsman, and E. Gershenzon, in Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology (Harvard U., 1997), p. 245.

Johnson, M. W.

A. M. Kadin and M. W. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3938 (1996).
[Crossref]

Kadin, A. M.

A. M. Kadin and M. W. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3938 (1996).
[Crossref]

Katz, J.

J. Katz, TDA Progress Report 42-70 (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 1982), p. 95, http://tmo.jpl.nasa.gov/ipnlowbarprogresslowbarreport/tda.cfm.

Keicher, W. E.

A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, W. E. Keicher, J. K. W. Yang, K. K. Berggren, G. Gol'tsman, and B. Voronov, "Kinetic-inductance-limited reset time of superconducting nanowire photon counters," arXiv.org print/archive physics/0510238 (October 26, 2005).

J. K. W. Yang, E. Dauler, A. Ferri, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, G. Gol'tsman, B. Voronov, R. Sobolewski, W. E. Keicher, and K. K. Berggren, IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 15, 626 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kerman, A. J.

A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, W. E. Keicher, J. K. W. Yang, K. K. Berggren, G. Gol'tsman, and B. Voronov, "Kinetic-inductance-limited reset time of superconducting nanowire photon counters," arXiv.org print/archive physics/0510238 (October 26, 2005).

Korneev, A.

J. Zhang, W. Slysz, A. Verevkin, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Korneev, A. Lipatov, G. N. Gol'tsman, and R. Sobolewski, IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 13, 180 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lipatov, A.

J. Zhang, W. Slysz, A. Verevkin, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Korneev, A. Lipatov, G. N. Gol'tsman, and R. Sobolewski, IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 13, 180 (2003).
[Crossref]

Moision, B. E.

B. E. Moision and J. Hamkins, Interplanetary Network Progress Report 42-161 (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 2005), p. 1, http://tmo.jpl.nasa.gov/ipnlowbarprogresslowbarreport/ipn.cfm.

Murphy, R. J.

D. O. Caplan, B. S. Robinson, R. J. Murphy, and M. L. Stevens, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference 2005 (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper PDP32.

Okunev, O.

J. Zhang, W. Slysz, A. Verevkin, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Korneev, A. Lipatov, G. N. Gol'tsman, and R. Sobolewski, IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 13, 180 (2003).
[Crossref]

G. N. Gol'tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. L. A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dsardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705 (2001).
[Crossref]

Pearlman, A.

J. K. W. Yang, E. Dauler, A. Ferri, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, G. Gol'tsman, B. Voronov, R. Sobolewski, W. E. Keicher, and K. K. Berggren, IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 15, 626 (2005).
[Crossref]

Pierce, J. R.

J. R. Pierce, IEEE Trans. Commun. COM-26, 1819 (1978).
[Crossref]

Robinson, B. S.

B. S. Robinson, D. O. Caplan, M. L. Stevens, R. J. Barron, E. A. Dauler, and S. A. Hamilton, in 2005 Digest of the LEOS Summer Topical Meetings (IEEE, 2005), paper TuA3.1.

D. O. Caplan, B. S. Robinson, R. J. Murphy, and M. L. Stevens, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference 2005 (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper PDP32.

Semenov, A. L.

G. N. Gol'tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. L. A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dsardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705 (2001).
[Crossref]

Slysz, W.

J. Zhang, W. Slysz, A. Verevkin, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Korneev, A. Lipatov, G. N. Gol'tsman, and R. Sobolewski, IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 13, 180 (2003).
[Crossref]

Smirnov, K.

G. N. Gol'tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. L. A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dsardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705 (2001).
[Crossref]

Sobolewski, R.

J. K. W. Yang, E. Dauler, A. Ferri, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, G. Gol'tsman, B. Voronov, R. Sobolewski, W. E. Keicher, and K. K. Berggren, IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 15, 626 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, W. Slysz, A. Verevkin, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Korneev, A. Lipatov, G. N. Gol'tsman, and R. Sobolewski, IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 13, 180 (2003).
[Crossref]

G. N. Gol'tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. L. A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dsardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705 (2001).
[Crossref]

Stevens, M. L.

B. S. Robinson, D. O. Caplan, M. L. Stevens, R. J. Barron, E. A. Dauler, and S. A. Hamilton, in 2005 Digest of the LEOS Summer Topical Meetings (IEEE, 2005), paper TuA3.1.

D. O. Caplan, B. S. Robinson, R. J. Murphy, and M. L. Stevens, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference 2005 (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper PDP32.

Townsend, P. D.

K. J. Gordon, V. Fernandez, P. D. Townsend, and G. S. Buller, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 900 (2004).
[Crossref]

Verevkin, A.

J. K. W. Yang, E. Dauler, A. Ferri, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, G. Gol'tsman, B. Voronov, R. Sobolewski, W. E. Keicher, and K. K. Berggren, IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 15, 626 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, W. Slysz, A. Verevkin, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Korneev, A. Lipatov, G. N. Gol'tsman, and R. Sobolewski, IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 13, 180 (2003).
[Crossref]

Voronov, B.

J. K. W. Yang, E. Dauler, A. Ferri, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, G. Gol'tsman, B. Voronov, R. Sobolewski, W. E. Keicher, and K. K. Berggren, IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 15, 626 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, W. E. Keicher, J. K. W. Yang, K. K. Berggren, G. Gol'tsman, and B. Voronov, "Kinetic-inductance-limited reset time of superconducting nanowire photon counters," arXiv.org print/archive physics/0510238 (October 26, 2005).

G. N. Gol'tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. L. A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dsardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705 (2001).
[Crossref]

Williams, C.

G. N. Gol'tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. L. A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dsardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705 (2001).
[Crossref]

Yahoubov, P.

S. Cherednichenko, P. Yahoubov, K. Il'in, G. Gol'tsman, and E. Gershenzon, in Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology (Harvard U., 1997), p. 245.

Yang, J. K.

J. K. W. Yang, E. Dauler, A. Ferri, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, G. Gol'tsman, B. Voronov, R. Sobolewski, W. E. Keicher, and K. K. Berggren, IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 15, 626 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, W. E. Keicher, J. K. W. Yang, K. K. Berggren, G. Gol'tsman, and B. Voronov, "Kinetic-inductance-limited reset time of superconducting nanowire photon counters," arXiv.org print/archive physics/0510238 (October 26, 2005).

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, W. Slysz, A. Verevkin, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Korneev, A. Lipatov, G. N. Gol'tsman, and R. Sobolewski, IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 13, 180 (2003).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

G. N. Gol'tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. L. A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dsardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. M. Kadin and M. W. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3938 (1996).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

K. J. Gordon, V. Fernandez, P. D. Townsend, and G. S. Buller, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 900 (2004).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. (2)

J. Zhang, W. Slysz, A. Verevkin, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Korneev, A. Lipatov, G. N. Gol'tsman, and R. Sobolewski, IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 13, 180 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. K. W. Yang, E. Dauler, A. Ferri, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, G. Gol'tsman, B. Voronov, R. Sobolewski, W. E. Keicher, and K. K. Berggren, IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 15, 626 (2005).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Commun. (1)

J. R. Pierce, IEEE Trans. Commun. COM-26, 1819 (1978).
[Crossref]

Other (6)

J. Katz, TDA Progress Report 42-70 (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 1982), p. 95, http://tmo.jpl.nasa.gov/ipnlowbarprogresslowbarreport/tda.cfm.

B. S. Robinson, D. O. Caplan, M. L. Stevens, R. J. Barron, E. A. Dauler, and S. A. Hamilton, in 2005 Digest of the LEOS Summer Topical Meetings (IEEE, 2005), paper TuA3.1.

S. Cherednichenko, P. Yahoubov, K. Il'in, G. Gol'tsman, and E. Gershenzon, in Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology (Harvard U., 1997), p. 245.

A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, W. E. Keicher, J. K. W. Yang, K. K. Berggren, G. Gol'tsman, and B. Voronov, "Kinetic-inductance-limited reset time of superconducting nanowire photon counters," arXiv.org print/archive physics/0510238 (October 26, 2005).

B. E. Moision and J. Hamkins, Interplanetary Network Progress Report 42-161 (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 2005), p. 1, http://tmo.jpl.nasa.gov/ipnlowbarprogresslowbarreport/ipn.cfm.

D. O. Caplan, B. S. Robinson, R. J. Murphy, and M. L. Stevens, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference 2005 (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper PDP32.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of experimental setup for demonstrating optical communications that use NbN-nanowire SSPDs.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Intensity-dependent detection characteristics of the SSPD in response to a 32-ary PPM signal at 5 and 10 GHz slot rates. Dashed lines, curves of constant detection efficiency.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured uncoded (open symbols) and coded (filled symbols) bit-error-rate performance at 5 (squares) and 10 (circles) GHz slot rates versus incident and detected power. Dashed lines, theoretical uncoded bit-error-rate performance for a Poisson channel. Solid curve, theoretical optimum performance for a background-free 32-ary PPM erasure channel with Poisson statistics.

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