Abstract

A novel optical frequency-domain imaging system is demonstrated that employs a passive optical demodulation circuit and a chirped digital acquisition clock derived from a voltage-controlled oscillator. The demodulation circuit allows the separation of signals from positive and negative depths to better than 50 dB, thereby eliminating depth degeneracy and doubling the imaging depth range. Our system design is compatible with dual-balanced and polarization-diverse detection, important techniques in the practical biomedical application of optical frequency-domain imaging.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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2005 (3)

2004 (1)

2003 (3)

2000 (1)

1995 (1)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, Opt. Commun. , 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

S. A. Kingsley and D. E. N. Davies, Electron. Lett. , 21, 434 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

D. A. Jackson, A. D. Kersey, and A. C. Lewin, Electron. Lett. , 20, 399 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Bouma, B. E.

Chen, Z.

Chen, Z. P.

Choma, M. A.

Davies, D. E.

S. A. Kingsley and D. E. N. Davies, Electron. Lett. , 21, 434 (1985).
[CrossRef]

de Boer, J. F.

Elzaiat, S. Y.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, Opt. Commun. , 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fercher, A. F.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, Opt. Commun. , 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, Opt. Commun. , 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Iftimia, N.

Izatt, J. A.

Jackson, D. A.

D. A. Jackson, A. D. Kersey, and A. C. Lewin, Electron. Lett. , 20, 399 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kamp, G.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, Opt. Commun. , 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kersey, A. D.

D. A. Jackson, A. D. Kersey, and A. C. Lewin, Electron. Lett. , 20, 399 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kingsley, S. A.

S. A. Kingsley and D. E. N. Davies, Electron. Lett. , 21, 434 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Lewin, A. C.

D. A. Jackson, A. D. Kersey, and A. C. Lewin, Electron. Lett. , 20, 399 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Maheshwari, A.

A. Maheshwari, M. A. Choma, and J. A. Izatt, in Proc. SPIE , 5690, 91 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, J. S.

Sarunic, M. V.

Saxer, C.

Tearney, G. J.

Xiang, S.

Yang, C. H.

Yun, S. H.

Zhang, J.

Zhao, Y.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diagram of the OFDI system. The data acquisition card (DAQ) samples the two signals on the analog input (AI) channels and generates a voltage waveform for controlling the sample clock on the analog output (AO). Each A line is synchronized with a TTL signal generated by the receiver (Rx) and TTL pulse generator (PG) on the trigger (trig) input of the DAQ. B.R., balanced receiver; CLK, clock.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) A line for a sample mirror at depth + 1.7 mm without digital correction. (b)–(d) A lines for the sample mirror at depths of + 1.7 mm , + 0.4 mm , and 1.3 mm with digital correction.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Axial point spread functions of a mirror with a constant-frequency clock signal (dashed curve) and the chirped-frequency clock signal (solid curve). The VCO waveforms used to generate the constant-frequency (dashed curve) and chirped-frequency (solid curve) clock signals are shown in (b).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Images of a human finger near the nailbed (a) without and (b) with complex modulation.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S ̂ Q B cos ( ϕ ) = [ α cos ( ϵ ) ] 1 S Q tan ( ϵ ) S I .
α = σ S Q σ S I 1 ,
sin ( ϵ ) = σ ( S Q ) 2 + σ ( S I ) 2 σ ( S Q S I ) 2 2 σ ( S Q ) σ ( S I ) ,

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