Abstract

We demonstrate optical bistability in a micrometer-sized silicon ring resonator based on the free-carrier dispersion effect in silicon. We measure the transfer function of the resonator showing a hysteresis loop with an input optical power of less than 10mW. The influence of the thermal optical effect, which is minimized in the experiment by use of nanosecond pulses, is evaluated theoretically. Applications include sequential logic operations for all-optical routing.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. N. T. Tanabe, A. Shinya, S. Mitsugi, and E. Kuramochi, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper QPDA5.
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. S. M. Weiss, M. Molinari, and P. M. Fauchet, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1980 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Delage, in Proc. SPIE 5117, 147 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2005

2004

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccla, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Almeida and M. Lipson, Opt. Lett. 29, 2387 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Boyraz and B. Jalali, Opt. Express 12, 5269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. A. Ibrahim, K. Amarnath, L. C. Kuo, R. Grover, V. Van, and P. T. Ho, Opt. Lett. 29, 2779 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Nature 431, 1081 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

T. A. Ibrahim, R. Grover, L. C. Kuo, S. Kanakaraju, L. C. Calhoun, and P. T. Ho, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1422 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Weiss, M. Molinari, and P. M. Fauchet, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1980 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Delage, in Proc. SPIE 5117, 147 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Opt. Lett. 28, 1302 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Barrios, V. R. Almeida, R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2332 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1996

K. Ogusu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1537 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992

G. Cocorullo and I. Rendina, Electron. Lett. 28, 83 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1987

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 123 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, V. R.

Amarnath, K.

Barclay, P. E.

Barrios, C. A.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Nature 431, 1081 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Barrios, V. R. Almeida, R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2332 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, B. R.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 123 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Boyraz, O.

Calhoun, L. C.

T. A. Ibrahim, R. Grover, L. C. Kuo, S. Kanakaraju, L. C. Calhoun, and P. T. Ho, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1422 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cheben, P.

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Delage, in Proc. SPIE 5117, 147 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cocorullo, G.

G. Cocorullo and I. Rendina, Electron. Lett. 28, 83 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, O.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccla, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delage, A.

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Delage, in Proc. SPIE 5117, 147 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dinu, M.

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fainter, O.

Fauchet, P. M.

S. M. Weiss, M. Molinari, and P. M. Fauchet, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1980 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Garcia, H.

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Grover, R.

T. A. Ibrahim, K. Amarnath, L. C. Kuo, R. Grover, V. Van, and P. T. Ho, Opt. Lett. 29, 2779 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. A. Ibrahim, R. Grover, L. C. Kuo, S. Kanakaraju, L. C. Calhoun, and P. T. Ho, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1422 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ho, P. T.

T. A. Ibrahim, K. Amarnath, L. C. Kuo, R. Grover, V. Van, and P. T. Ho, Opt. Lett. 29, 2779 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. A. Ibrahim, R. Grover, L. C. Kuo, S. Kanakaraju, L. C. Calhoun, and P. T. Ho, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1422 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ibrahim, T. A.

T. A. Ibrahim, K. Amarnath, L. C. Kuo, R. Grover, V. Van, and P. T. Ho, Opt. Lett. 29, 2779 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. A. Ibrahim, R. Grover, L. C. Kuo, S. Kanakaraju, L. C. Calhoun, and P. T. Ho, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1422 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jalali, B.

Janz, S.

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Delage, in Proc. SPIE 5117, 147 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccla, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kanakaraju, S.

T. A. Ibrahim, R. Grover, L. C. Kuo, S. Kanakaraju, L. C. Calhoun, and P. T. Ho, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1422 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, L. C.

T. A. Ibrahim, K. Amarnath, L. C. Kuo, R. Grover, V. Van, and P. T. Ho, Opt. Lett. 29, 2779 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. A. Ibrahim, R. Grover, L. C. Kuo, S. Kanakaraju, L. C. Calhoun, and P. T. Ho, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1422 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kuramochi, E.

M. N. T. Tanabe, A. Shinya, S. Mitsugi, and E. Kuramochi, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper QPDA5.

Liao, L.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccla, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lipson, M.

Liu, A.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccla, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mitsugi, S.

M. N. T. Tanabe, A. Shinya, S. Mitsugi, and E. Kuramochi, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper QPDA5.

Molinari, M.

S. M. Weiss, M. Molinari, and P. M. Fauchet, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1980 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nicolaescu, R.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccla, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ogusu, K.

K. Ogusu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1537 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Panepucci, R.

Panepucci, R. R.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Nature 431, 1081 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Opt. Lett. 28, 1302 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paniccla, M.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccla, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pradhan, S.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, Nature 435, 325 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quochi, F.

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rendina, I.

G. Cocorullo and I. Rendina, Electron. Lett. 28, 83 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rubin, D.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccla, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Samara-Rubio, D.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccla, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, B.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, Nature 435, 325 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shinya, A.

M. N. T. Tanabe, A. Shinya, S. Mitsugi, and E. Kuramochi, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper QPDA5.

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 123 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Srinivasan, K.

Tanabe, M. N. T.

M. N. T. Tanabe, A. Shinya, S. Mitsugi, and E. Kuramochi, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper QPDA5.

Van, V.

Weiss, S. M.

S. M. Weiss, M. Molinari, and P. M. Fauchet, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1980 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xu, D.-X.

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Delage, in Proc. SPIE 5117, 147 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Q.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, Nature 435, 325 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Weiss, M. Molinari, and P. M. Fauchet, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1980 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

G. Cocorullo and I. Rendina, Electron. Lett. 28, 83 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

K. Ogusu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1537 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 123 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

T. A. Ibrahim, R. Grover, L. C. Kuo, S. Kanakaraju, L. C. Calhoun, and P. T. Ho, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1422 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Nature

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccla, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, Nature 435, 325 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Nature 431, 1081 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Delage, in Proc. SPIE 5117, 147 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. N. T. Tanabe, A. Shinya, S. Mitsugi, and E. Kuramochi, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper QPDA5.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Transmission spectrum of the ring resonator. Resonant wavelength λ 0 and the wavelengths used in the following bistability measurements, λ 1 and λ 2 , are marked by arrows on the spectrum. Inset, top-view scanning-electron microscopy image of the ring resonator.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transfer function of the ring resonator with wavelength detuning of Δ λ 1 = 0.11 nm (solid curves) and Δ λ 2 = 0.08 nm (dashed curves), showing the bistability effect.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Waveforms of input and output pulses for obtaining points A and B on the transfer function curves in Fig. 2. (a) Input pulse for obtaining point A. (b) Output pulse for the input shown in (a). (c) Input pulses for obtaining point B. The lighter curve shows the leading pulse, and the darker curve shows the main pulse, which is identical to the input pulse shown in (b). (d) Output pulse for the input shown in (c).

Equations (4)

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d N d t + N τ c = P A 2 h ν V ,
d Δ T d t + Δ T τ θ = P A ρ C V ,
Δ n θ Δ n c = 2 h υ κ θ τ θ ρ C κ c τ c 0.022 τ θ τ c ,
Δ n θ Δ n c = 2 h υ κ θ T ρ C κ c τ c 0.022 T τ c .

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