Abstract

A combinatorial etching technique is developed to fabricate integrated narrow bandpass filters on a single substrate. It is highly efficient for fabrication of integrated filter arrays in optical regions. A monolithic filter array has been fabricated by using the technique with a two-step deposition process. The filter contains 32 elements in the near-infrared region. The relative full width at half-maximum (FWHM) δλλ of the filter elements is less than 0.2%. Such a narrow bandpass filter array can be utilized in many optical applications.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. D. Hunkel, M. Marso, R. Butz, R. Arens-Fischer, and H. Lüth, Mater. Sci. Eng. B69-70, 100 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  5. D. Hohlfeld, M. Epmeier, and H. Zappe, in Proc. SPIE 4989, 143 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Kaushik and B. R. Stallard, in Proc. SPIE 2532, 276 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Z. Jaksic, R. Petrovic, D. Randjelovic, T. Dankovic, Z. Djuric, W. Ehrfeld, A. Schmidt, and K. Hecker, in Proc. SPIE 3680, 611 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. X.-D. Xiang, X. Sun, G. Briceno, Y. Lou, K.-A. Wang, H. Chang, W. G. Wallace-Freedman, S.-W. Chen, and P. G. Schultz, Science 268, 1738 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. G. Briceno, H. Chang, X. D. Sun, P. G. Schultz, and X. D. Xiang, Science 270, 273 (1995).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (1)

L. Bei, G. I. Dennis, H. M. Miller, T. W. Spaine, and J. W. Carnahan, Prog. Quantum Electron. 28, 67 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

D. Hohlfeld, M. Epmeier, and H. Zappe, in Proc. SPIE 4989, 143 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

M. Aziz, P. Meissner, and Th. Hermes, Opt. Commun. 208, 61 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

D. Hunkel, M. Marso, R. Butz, R. Arens-Fischer, and H. Lüth, Mater. Sci. Eng. B69-70, 100 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

Z. Jaksic, R. Petrovic, D. Randjelovic, T. Dankovic, Z. Djuric, W. Ehrfeld, A. Schmidt, and K. Hecker, in Proc. SPIE 3680, 611 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

M. Frank, B. Schallenberg, and N. Kaiser, Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 36, 1220 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

S. Kaushik and B. R. Stallard, in Proc. SPIE 2532, 276 (1995).
[CrossRef]

X.-D. Xiang, X. Sun, G. Briceno, Y. Lou, K.-A. Wang, H. Chang, W. G. Wallace-Freedman, S.-W. Chen, and P. G. Schultz, Science 268, 1738 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Briceno, H. Chang, X. D. Sun, P. G. Schultz, and X. D. Xiang, Science 270, 273 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Arens-Fischer, R.

D. Hunkel, M. Marso, R. Butz, R. Arens-Fischer, and H. Lüth, Mater. Sci. Eng. B69-70, 100 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Aziz, M.

M. Aziz, P. Meissner, and Th. Hermes, Opt. Commun. 208, 61 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bei, L.

L. Bei, G. I. Dennis, H. M. Miller, T. W. Spaine, and J. W. Carnahan, Prog. Quantum Electron. 28, 67 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Briceno, G.

X.-D. Xiang, X. Sun, G. Briceno, Y. Lou, K.-A. Wang, H. Chang, W. G. Wallace-Freedman, S.-W. Chen, and P. G. Schultz, Science 268, 1738 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Briceno, H. Chang, X. D. Sun, P. G. Schultz, and X. D. Xiang, Science 270, 273 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Butz, R.

D. Hunkel, M. Marso, R. Butz, R. Arens-Fischer, and H. Lüth, Mater. Sci. Eng. B69-70, 100 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Carnahan, J. W.

L. Bei, G. I. Dennis, H. M. Miller, T. W. Spaine, and J. W. Carnahan, Prog. Quantum Electron. 28, 67 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chang, H.

X.-D. Xiang, X. Sun, G. Briceno, Y. Lou, K.-A. Wang, H. Chang, W. G. Wallace-Freedman, S.-W. Chen, and P. G. Schultz, Science 268, 1738 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Briceno, H. Chang, X. D. Sun, P. G. Schultz, and X. D. Xiang, Science 270, 273 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.-W.

X.-D. Xiang, X. Sun, G. Briceno, Y. Lou, K.-A. Wang, H. Chang, W. G. Wallace-Freedman, S.-W. Chen, and P. G. Schultz, Science 268, 1738 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dankovic, T.

Z. Jaksic, R. Petrovic, D. Randjelovic, T. Dankovic, Z. Djuric, W. Ehrfeld, A. Schmidt, and K. Hecker, in Proc. SPIE 3680, 611 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dennis, G. I.

L. Bei, G. I. Dennis, H. M. Miller, T. W. Spaine, and J. W. Carnahan, Prog. Quantum Electron. 28, 67 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Djuric, Z.

Z. Jaksic, R. Petrovic, D. Randjelovic, T. Dankovic, Z. Djuric, W. Ehrfeld, A. Schmidt, and K. Hecker, in Proc. SPIE 3680, 611 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ehrfeld, W.

Z. Jaksic, R. Petrovic, D. Randjelovic, T. Dankovic, Z. Djuric, W. Ehrfeld, A. Schmidt, and K. Hecker, in Proc. SPIE 3680, 611 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Epmeier, M.

D. Hohlfeld, M. Epmeier, and H. Zappe, in Proc. SPIE 4989, 143 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Frank, M.

M. Frank, B. Schallenberg, and N. Kaiser, Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 36, 1220 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hecker, K.

Z. Jaksic, R. Petrovic, D. Randjelovic, T. Dankovic, Z. Djuric, W. Ehrfeld, A. Schmidt, and K. Hecker, in Proc. SPIE 3680, 611 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hermes, Th.

M. Aziz, P. Meissner, and Th. Hermes, Opt. Commun. 208, 61 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hohlfeld, D.

D. Hohlfeld, M. Epmeier, and H. Zappe, in Proc. SPIE 4989, 143 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hunkel, D.

D. Hunkel, M. Marso, R. Butz, R. Arens-Fischer, and H. Lüth, Mater. Sci. Eng. B69-70, 100 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jaksic, Z.

Z. Jaksic, R. Petrovic, D. Randjelovic, T. Dankovic, Z. Djuric, W. Ehrfeld, A. Schmidt, and K. Hecker, in Proc. SPIE 3680, 611 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, N.

M. Frank, B. Schallenberg, and N. Kaiser, Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 36, 1220 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kaushik, S.

S. Kaushik and B. R. Stallard, in Proc. SPIE 2532, 276 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lou, Y.

X.-D. Xiang, X. Sun, G. Briceno, Y. Lou, K.-A. Wang, H. Chang, W. G. Wallace-Freedman, S.-W. Chen, and P. G. Schultz, Science 268, 1738 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lüth, H.

D. Hunkel, M. Marso, R. Butz, R. Arens-Fischer, and H. Lüth, Mater. Sci. Eng. B69-70, 100 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Marso, M.

D. Hunkel, M. Marso, R. Butz, R. Arens-Fischer, and H. Lüth, Mater. Sci. Eng. B69-70, 100 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Meissner, P.

M. Aziz, P. Meissner, and Th. Hermes, Opt. Commun. 208, 61 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Miller, H. M.

L. Bei, G. I. Dennis, H. M. Miller, T. W. Spaine, and J. W. Carnahan, Prog. Quantum Electron. 28, 67 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Petrovic, R.

Z. Jaksic, R. Petrovic, D. Randjelovic, T. Dankovic, Z. Djuric, W. Ehrfeld, A. Schmidt, and K. Hecker, in Proc. SPIE 3680, 611 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Randjelovic, D.

Z. Jaksic, R. Petrovic, D. Randjelovic, T. Dankovic, Z. Djuric, W. Ehrfeld, A. Schmidt, and K. Hecker, in Proc. SPIE 3680, 611 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schallenberg, B.

M. Frank, B. Schallenberg, and N. Kaiser, Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 36, 1220 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, A.

Z. Jaksic, R. Petrovic, D. Randjelovic, T. Dankovic, Z. Djuric, W. Ehrfeld, A. Schmidt, and K. Hecker, in Proc. SPIE 3680, 611 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schultz, P. G.

X.-D. Xiang, X. Sun, G. Briceno, Y. Lou, K.-A. Wang, H. Chang, W. G. Wallace-Freedman, S.-W. Chen, and P. G. Schultz, Science 268, 1738 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Briceno, H. Chang, X. D. Sun, P. G. Schultz, and X. D. Xiang, Science 270, 273 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Spaine, T. W.

L. Bei, G. I. Dennis, H. M. Miller, T. W. Spaine, and J. W. Carnahan, Prog. Quantum Electron. 28, 67 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stallard, B. R.

S. Kaushik and B. R. Stallard, in Proc. SPIE 2532, 276 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X.

X.-D. Xiang, X. Sun, G. Briceno, Y. Lou, K.-A. Wang, H. Chang, W. G. Wallace-Freedman, S.-W. Chen, and P. G. Schultz, Science 268, 1738 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, X. D.

G. Briceno, H. Chang, X. D. Sun, P. G. Schultz, and X. D. Xiang, Science 270, 273 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wallace-Freedman, W. G.

X.-D. Xiang, X. Sun, G. Briceno, Y. Lou, K.-A. Wang, H. Chang, W. G. Wallace-Freedman, S.-W. Chen, and P. G. Schultz, Science 268, 1738 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, K.-A.

X.-D. Xiang, X. Sun, G. Briceno, Y. Lou, K.-A. Wang, H. Chang, W. G. Wallace-Freedman, S.-W. Chen, and P. G. Schultz, Science 268, 1738 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiang, X. D.

G. Briceno, H. Chang, X. D. Sun, P. G. Schultz, and X. D. Xiang, Science 270, 273 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Xiang, X.-D.

X.-D. Xiang, X. Sun, G. Briceno, Y. Lou, K.-A. Wang, H. Chang, W. G. Wallace-Freedman, S.-W. Chen, and P. G. Schultz, Science 268, 1738 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zappe, H.

D. Hohlfeld, M. Epmeier, and H. Zappe, in Proc. SPIE 4989, 143 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng. (1)

D. Hunkel, M. Marso, R. Butz, R. Arens-Fischer, and H. Lüth, Mater. Sci. Eng. B69-70, 100 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. Aziz, P. Meissner, and Th. Hermes, Opt. Commun. 208, 61 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) (1)

M. Frank, B. Schallenberg, and N. Kaiser, Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 36, 1220 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (3)

D. Hohlfeld, M. Epmeier, and H. Zappe, in Proc. SPIE 4989, 143 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Kaushik and B. R. Stallard, in Proc. SPIE 2532, 276 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jaksic, R. Petrovic, D. Randjelovic, T. Dankovic, Z. Djuric, W. Ehrfeld, A. Schmidt, and K. Hecker, in Proc. SPIE 3680, 611 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Quantum Electron. (1)

L. Bei, G. I. Dennis, H. M. Miller, T. W. Spaine, and J. W. Carnahan, Prog. Quantum Electron. 28, 67 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

X.-D. Xiang, X. Sun, G. Briceno, Y. Lou, K.-A. Wang, H. Chang, W. G. Wallace-Freedman, S.-W. Chen, and P. G. Schultz, Science 268, 1738 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Briceno, H. Chang, X. D. Sun, P. G. Schultz, and X. D. Xiang, Science 270, 273 (1995).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a)–(c) Diagram of the procedure for fabricating a filter array by using combinatorial etching, where (b1)–(b3) are the combinatorial etching processes. (d) 3D schematic diagram of the fabricated filter array.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmittance spectra of the same filter structure (LH)3 4 L (HL)3 fabricated by running the deposition procedure twice and the conventional procedure once.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) AFM pictures of sample surfaces in different combinatorial etching processes: (a) after deposition of the lower mirror stack and the spacer layer, (b) after etching of the surface of the spacer layer, (c) after deposition of the upper mirror stack on the etched surface.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Transmittance spectra of each element on the 32 × 1 filter array, with element size of 0.37 mm × 12 mm . (b) Peak wavelength of the filter passbands, where the line and points are theoretical and experimental results, respectively.

Equations (2)

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λ = 2 n d k + ( φ 1 + φ 2 ) 2 π = 2 n d m ,
m = k + ( φ 1 + φ 2 ) 2 π , k = 0 , 1 , 2 .

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