Abstract

A novel all-fiber refractometer sensor is proposed, which is based on multimode interference in the multimode fiber core section sandwiched between two single-mode fibers. A wide-angle beam propagation method in the cylindrical coordinate is employed as the modeling tool for simulation and design of the proposed refractometer sensor. The design for a refractometer is presented that shows that the refractometer would have an estimated resolution of 5.4×105 for refractive indices from 1.33 to 1.45 and of 3.3×105 for refractive indices from 1.38 to 1.45 through the choice of an appropriate length of the multimode fiber core section.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2004 (1)

2003 (3)

R. Bernini, S. Campopiano, C. de Boer, P. M. Sarro, and L. Zeni, IEEE Sens. J. 3, 652 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Kumar, R. K. Varshney, A. C. Siny, and P. Sharma, Opt. Commun. 219, 215 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Mehta, W. S. Mohammed, and E. G. Johnson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1129 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1997 (1)

B. Maisenholder, H. P. Zappe, M. Moser, P. Riel, R. E. Kunz, and J. Edlinger, Electron. Lett. 35, 986 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

G. Raizada and B. P. Pal, Opt. Lett. 21, 399 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yamauchi, Y. Akimoto, M. Nibe, and H. Nakano, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 236 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Huang, C. L. Xu, W. Lui, and K. Yokoyama, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 649 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

1991 (1)

Akimoto, Y.

J. Yamauchi, Y. Akimoto, M. Nibe, and H. Nakano, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 236 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bernini, R.

R. Bernini, S. Campopiano, C. de Boer, P. M. Sarro, and L. Zeni, IEEE Sens. J. 3, 652 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Campopiano, S.

R. Bernini, S. Campopiano, C. de Boer, P. M. Sarro, and L. Zeni, IEEE Sens. J. 3, 652 (2003).
[CrossRef]

de Boer, C.

R. Bernini, S. Campopiano, C. de Boer, P. M. Sarro, and L. Zeni, IEEE Sens. J. 3, 652 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Edlinger, J.

B. Maisenholder, H. P. Zappe, M. Moser, P. Riel, R. E. Kunz, and J. Edlinger, Electron. Lett. 35, 986 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hadley, G. R.

Huang, W. P.

W. P. Huang, C. L. Xu, W. Lui, and K. Yokoyama, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 649 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, Y. S.

Y. Jung, Y. S. Jeong, J. Kim, S. Yoo, and K. Oh, in ECOC 2004 Proceedings, 3, paper We4.P.031.

Johnson, E. G.

W. S. Mohammed, A. Mehta, and E. G. Johnson, J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 469 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Mehta, W. S. Mohammed, and E. G. Johnson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1129 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Johnstone, W.

Jung, Y.

Y. Jung, Y. S. Jeong, J. Kim, S. Yoo, and K. Oh, in ECOC 2004 Proceedings, 3, paper We4.P.031.

Kim, J.

Y. Jung, Y. S. Jeong, J. Kim, S. Yoo, and K. Oh, in ECOC 2004 Proceedings, 3, paper We4.P.031.

Kumar, A.

A. Kumar, R. K. Varshney, A. C. Siny, and P. Sharma, Opt. Commun. 219, 215 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kunz, R. E.

B. Maisenholder, H. P. Zappe, M. Moser, P. Riel, R. E. Kunz, and J. Edlinger, Electron. Lett. 35, 986 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lambeck, P. V.

Liu, F. F.

Lui, W.

W. P. Huang, C. L. Xu, W. Lui, and K. Yokoyama, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 649 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Maisenholder, B.

B. Maisenholder, H. P. Zappe, M. Moser, P. Riel, R. E. Kunz, and J. Edlinger, Electron. Lett. 35, 986 (1997).
[CrossRef]

McCallion, K.

Mehta, A.

W. S. Mohammed, A. Mehta, and E. G. Johnson, J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 469 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Mehta, W. S. Mohammed, and E. G. Johnson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1129 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mohammed, W. S.

W. S. Mohammed, A. Mehta, and E. G. Johnson, J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 469 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Mehta, W. S. Mohammed, and E. G. Johnson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1129 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Moodie, D.

Moser, M.

B. Maisenholder, H. P. Zappe, M. Moser, P. Riel, R. E. Kunz, and J. Edlinger, Electron. Lett. 35, 986 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nakano, H.

J. Yamauchi, Y. Akimoto, M. Nibe, and H. Nakano, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 236 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nibe, M.

J. Yamauchi, Y. Akimoto, M. Nibe, and H. Nakano, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 236 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Oh, K.

Y. Jung, Y. S. Jeong, J. Kim, S. Yoo, and K. Oh, in ECOC 2004 Proceedings, 3, paper We4.P.031.

Pal, B. P.

Pennings, E. C.

L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Raizada, G.

Riel, P.

B. Maisenholder, H. P. Zappe, M. Moser, P. Riel, R. E. Kunz, and J. Edlinger, Electron. Lett. 35, 986 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sarro, P. M.

R. Bernini, S. Campopiano, C. de Boer, P. M. Sarro, and L. Zeni, IEEE Sens. J. 3, 652 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, P.

A. Kumar, R. K. Varshney, A. C. Siny, and P. Sharma, Opt. Commun. 219, 215 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Siny, A. C.

A. Kumar, R. K. Varshney, A. C. Siny, and P. Sharma, Opt. Commun. 219, 215 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Soldano, L. B.

L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Thursby, G.

van der Veen, L. E.

Varshney, R. K.

A. Kumar, R. K. Varshney, A. C. Siny, and P. Sharma, Opt. Commun. 219, 215 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Veldhuis, G. J.

Xu, C. L.

W. P. Huang, C. L. Xu, W. Lui, and K. Yokoyama, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 649 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yamauchi, J.

J. Yamauchi, Y. Akimoto, M. Nibe, and H. Nakano, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 236 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yokoyama, K.

W. P. Huang, C. L. Xu, W. Lui, and K. Yokoyama, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 649 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, S.

Y. Jung, Y. S. Jeong, J. Kim, S. Yoo, and K. Oh, in ECOC 2004 Proceedings, 3, paper We4.P.031.

Zappe, H. P.

B. Maisenholder, H. P. Zappe, M. Moser, P. Riel, R. E. Kunz, and J. Edlinger, Electron. Lett. 35, 986 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zeni, L.

R. Bernini, S. Campopiano, C. de Boer, P. M. Sarro, and L. Zeni, IEEE Sens. J. 3, 652 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Z.

Electron. Lett. (1)

B. Maisenholder, H. P. Zappe, M. Moser, P. Riel, R. E. Kunz, and J. Edlinger, Electron. Lett. 35, 986 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

A. Mehta, W. S. Mohammed, and E. G. Johnson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1129 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Yamauchi, Y. Akimoto, M. Nibe, and H. Nakano, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 236 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Huang, C. L. Xu, W. Lui, and K. Yokoyama, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 649 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

R. Bernini, S. Campopiano, C. de Boer, P. M. Sarro, and L. Zeni, IEEE Sens. J. 3, 652 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. Kumar, R. K. Varshney, A. C. Siny, and P. Sharma, Opt. Commun. 219, 215 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Other (1)

Y. Jung, Y. S. Jeong, J. Kim, S. Yoo, and K. Oh, in ECOC 2004 Proceedings, 3, paper We4.P.031.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Configuration of the proposed refractometer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Amplitude distribution of the propagation field within the multimode fiber section.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmission losses versus length of MMF and refractive index.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

One-to-one relationships between the transmission losses and refractive index at designed MMF lengths.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E ̂ z = [ ( j 2 k n 0 P ) ( 1 j 2 k n 0 z ) ] E ̂ ,
a i * η _ E ̂ p 1 n + i m + [ 1 + a i * ζ ] E ̂ p n + i m + a i * η + E ̂ p + 1 n + i m = a i η _ E ̂ p 1 n + i 1 m + [ 1 + a i ζ ] E ̂ p 1 n + i 1 m + a i η + E ̂ p + 1 n + i 1 m ,
{ 1 + a i * [ k 2 ( n 2 n 0 2 ) 4 Δ r 2 ] } E ̂ 0 n + i m + a i * 4 Δ r 2 E ̂ 1 n + i m = { 1 + a i [ k 2 ( n 2 n 0 2 ) 4 Δ r 2 ] } E ̂ 0 n + ( i 1 ) m + a i [ 4 Δ r 2 ] E ̂ 1 n ( i 1 ) m .
L s ( l ) = 10 log 10 [ 0 E ( l , r ) F ( r ) r d r 2 0 E ( l , r ) 2 r d r 0 F ( r ) 2 r d r ] ,

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