Abstract

A 32×32 microelectromechanical systems deformable mirror is controlled in closed loop with a spatially filtered Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor and a Fourier-transform wavefront reconstruction algorithm. A phase plate based on atmospheric turbulence statistics is used to generate a 1μm peak–valley static phase aberration. Far-field images and direct phase measurements of the residual are used to compare performance with and without the spatial filter. Use of the spatial filter reduces error in the controllable band from 20 to 6 nm rms. Residual phase power is reduced by more than a factor of 5 for all spatial frequencies up to 0.85×12d, with a maximum attenuation factor of 37.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. Macintosh, B. Bauman, J. Evans, J. Graham, C. Lockwood, L. Poyneer, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, J. J. Green, J. Lloyd, R. Makidon, S. Olivier, D. Palmer, M. Perrin, S. Severson, A. Sheinis, A. Sivaramakrishnan, G. Sommargren, R. Soummer, M. Troy, J. Wallace, and E. Wishnow, in Proc. SPIE 5490, 359 (2004).
  2. L. Poyneer and B. Macintosh, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 810 (2004).
  3. T. Fusco, C. Petit, G. Rousset, J.-M. Conan, and J.-L. Beuzit, Opt. Lett. 30, 1255 (2005).
    [PubMed]
  4. J. Evans, G. Sommargren, L. Poyneer, B. Macintosh, S. Severson, D. Dillon, A. Sheinis, D. Palmer, N. Kasdin, and S. Olivier, in Proc. SPIE 5490, 954 (2004).
  5. G. Sommargren, D. Phillion, M. Johnson, N. Nguyen, A. Barty, F. Snell, D. Dillon, and L. Bradsher, in Proc. SPIE 4688, 316 (2002).
  6. L. Poyneer, D. Palmer, K. LaFortune, and B. Bauman, in Proc. SPIE 5894, 58940N (2005).
  7. L. Poyneer and J.-P. Véran, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 1515 (2005).
  8. J. Evans, K. Morzinski, L. Reza, S. Severson, L. Poyneer, B. Macintosh, D. Dillon, G. Sommargren, D. Palmer, D. Gavel, and S. Olivier, in Proc. SPIE 5905, 59050Y (2005).

2005 (4)

T. Fusco, C. Petit, G. Rousset, J.-M. Conan, and J.-L. Beuzit, Opt. Lett. 30, 1255 (2005).
[PubMed]

L. Poyneer, D. Palmer, K. LaFortune, and B. Bauman, in Proc. SPIE 5894, 58940N (2005).

L. Poyneer and J.-P. Véran, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 1515 (2005).

J. Evans, K. Morzinski, L. Reza, S. Severson, L. Poyneer, B. Macintosh, D. Dillon, G. Sommargren, D. Palmer, D. Gavel, and S. Olivier, in Proc. SPIE 5905, 59050Y (2005).

2004 (3)

J. Evans, G. Sommargren, L. Poyneer, B. Macintosh, S. Severson, D. Dillon, A. Sheinis, D. Palmer, N. Kasdin, and S. Olivier, in Proc. SPIE 5490, 954 (2004).

B. Macintosh, B. Bauman, J. Evans, J. Graham, C. Lockwood, L. Poyneer, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, J. J. Green, J. Lloyd, R. Makidon, S. Olivier, D. Palmer, M. Perrin, S. Severson, A. Sheinis, A. Sivaramakrishnan, G. Sommargren, R. Soummer, M. Troy, J. Wallace, and E. Wishnow, in Proc. SPIE 5490, 359 (2004).

L. Poyneer and B. Macintosh, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 810 (2004).

2002 (1)

G. Sommargren, D. Phillion, M. Johnson, N. Nguyen, A. Barty, F. Snell, D. Dillon, and L. Bradsher, in Proc. SPIE 4688, 316 (2002).

Barty, A.

G. Sommargren, D. Phillion, M. Johnson, N. Nguyen, A. Barty, F. Snell, D. Dillon, and L. Bradsher, in Proc. SPIE 4688, 316 (2002).

Bauman, B.

L. Poyneer, D. Palmer, K. LaFortune, and B. Bauman, in Proc. SPIE 5894, 58940N (2005).

B. Macintosh, B. Bauman, J. Evans, J. Graham, C. Lockwood, L. Poyneer, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, J. J. Green, J. Lloyd, R. Makidon, S. Olivier, D. Palmer, M. Perrin, S. Severson, A. Sheinis, A. Sivaramakrishnan, G. Sommargren, R. Soummer, M. Troy, J. Wallace, and E. Wishnow, in Proc. SPIE 5490, 359 (2004).

Beuzit, J.-L.

Bradsher, L.

G. Sommargren, D. Phillion, M. Johnson, N. Nguyen, A. Barty, F. Snell, D. Dillon, and L. Bradsher, in Proc. SPIE 4688, 316 (2002).

Conan, J.-M.

Dillon, D.

J. Evans, K. Morzinski, L. Reza, S. Severson, L. Poyneer, B. Macintosh, D. Dillon, G. Sommargren, D. Palmer, D. Gavel, and S. Olivier, in Proc. SPIE 5905, 59050Y (2005).

J. Evans, G. Sommargren, L. Poyneer, B. Macintosh, S. Severson, D. Dillon, A. Sheinis, D. Palmer, N. Kasdin, and S. Olivier, in Proc. SPIE 5490, 954 (2004).

B. Macintosh, B. Bauman, J. Evans, J. Graham, C. Lockwood, L. Poyneer, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, J. J. Green, J. Lloyd, R. Makidon, S. Olivier, D. Palmer, M. Perrin, S. Severson, A. Sheinis, A. Sivaramakrishnan, G. Sommargren, R. Soummer, M. Troy, J. Wallace, and E. Wishnow, in Proc. SPIE 5490, 359 (2004).

G. Sommargren, D. Phillion, M. Johnson, N. Nguyen, A. Barty, F. Snell, D. Dillon, and L. Bradsher, in Proc. SPIE 4688, 316 (2002).

Evans, J.

J. Evans, K. Morzinski, L. Reza, S. Severson, L. Poyneer, B. Macintosh, D. Dillon, G. Sommargren, D. Palmer, D. Gavel, and S. Olivier, in Proc. SPIE 5905, 59050Y (2005).

J. Evans, G. Sommargren, L. Poyneer, B. Macintosh, S. Severson, D. Dillon, A. Sheinis, D. Palmer, N. Kasdin, and S. Olivier, in Proc. SPIE 5490, 954 (2004).

B. Macintosh, B. Bauman, J. Evans, J. Graham, C. Lockwood, L. Poyneer, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, J. J. Green, J. Lloyd, R. Makidon, S. Olivier, D. Palmer, M. Perrin, S. Severson, A. Sheinis, A. Sivaramakrishnan, G. Sommargren, R. Soummer, M. Troy, J. Wallace, and E. Wishnow, in Proc. SPIE 5490, 359 (2004).

Fusco, T.

Gavel, D.

J. Evans, K. Morzinski, L. Reza, S. Severson, L. Poyneer, B. Macintosh, D. Dillon, G. Sommargren, D. Palmer, D. Gavel, and S. Olivier, in Proc. SPIE 5905, 59050Y (2005).

B. Macintosh, B. Bauman, J. Evans, J. Graham, C. Lockwood, L. Poyneer, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, J. J. Green, J. Lloyd, R. Makidon, S. Olivier, D. Palmer, M. Perrin, S. Severson, A. Sheinis, A. Sivaramakrishnan, G. Sommargren, R. Soummer, M. Troy, J. Wallace, and E. Wishnow, in Proc. SPIE 5490, 359 (2004).

Graham, J.

B. Macintosh, B. Bauman, J. Evans, J. Graham, C. Lockwood, L. Poyneer, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, J. J. Green, J. Lloyd, R. Makidon, S. Olivier, D. Palmer, M. Perrin, S. Severson, A. Sheinis, A. Sivaramakrishnan, G. Sommargren, R. Soummer, M. Troy, J. Wallace, and E. Wishnow, in Proc. SPIE 5490, 359 (2004).

Green, J. J.

B. Macintosh, B. Bauman, J. Evans, J. Graham, C. Lockwood, L. Poyneer, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, J. J. Green, J. Lloyd, R. Makidon, S. Olivier, D. Palmer, M. Perrin, S. Severson, A. Sheinis, A. Sivaramakrishnan, G. Sommargren, R. Soummer, M. Troy, J. Wallace, and E. Wishnow, in Proc. SPIE 5490, 359 (2004).

Johnson, M.

G. Sommargren, D. Phillion, M. Johnson, N. Nguyen, A. Barty, F. Snell, D. Dillon, and L. Bradsher, in Proc. SPIE 4688, 316 (2002).

Kasdin, N.

J. Evans, G. Sommargren, L. Poyneer, B. Macintosh, S. Severson, D. Dillon, A. Sheinis, D. Palmer, N. Kasdin, and S. Olivier, in Proc. SPIE 5490, 954 (2004).

LaFortune, K.

L. Poyneer, D. Palmer, K. LaFortune, and B. Bauman, in Proc. SPIE 5894, 58940N (2005).

Lloyd, J.

B. Macintosh, B. Bauman, J. Evans, J. Graham, C. Lockwood, L. Poyneer, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, J. J. Green, J. Lloyd, R. Makidon, S. Olivier, D. Palmer, M. Perrin, S. Severson, A. Sheinis, A. Sivaramakrishnan, G. Sommargren, R. Soummer, M. Troy, J. Wallace, and E. Wishnow, in Proc. SPIE 5490, 359 (2004).

Lockwood, C.

B. Macintosh, B. Bauman, J. Evans, J. Graham, C. Lockwood, L. Poyneer, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, J. J. Green, J. Lloyd, R. Makidon, S. Olivier, D. Palmer, M. Perrin, S. Severson, A. Sheinis, A. Sivaramakrishnan, G. Sommargren, R. Soummer, M. Troy, J. Wallace, and E. Wishnow, in Proc. SPIE 5490, 359 (2004).

Macintosh, B.

J. Evans, K. Morzinski, L. Reza, S. Severson, L. Poyneer, B. Macintosh, D. Dillon, G. Sommargren, D. Palmer, D. Gavel, and S. Olivier, in Proc. SPIE 5905, 59050Y (2005).

B. Macintosh, B. Bauman, J. Evans, J. Graham, C. Lockwood, L. Poyneer, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, J. J. Green, J. Lloyd, R. Makidon, S. Olivier, D. Palmer, M. Perrin, S. Severson, A. Sheinis, A. Sivaramakrishnan, G. Sommargren, R. Soummer, M. Troy, J. Wallace, and E. Wishnow, in Proc. SPIE 5490, 359 (2004).

L. Poyneer and B. Macintosh, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 810 (2004).

J. Evans, G. Sommargren, L. Poyneer, B. Macintosh, S. Severson, D. Dillon, A. Sheinis, D. Palmer, N. Kasdin, and S. Olivier, in Proc. SPIE 5490, 954 (2004).

Makidon, R.

B. Macintosh, B. Bauman, J. Evans, J. Graham, C. Lockwood, L. Poyneer, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, J. J. Green, J. Lloyd, R. Makidon, S. Olivier, D. Palmer, M. Perrin, S. Severson, A. Sheinis, A. Sivaramakrishnan, G. Sommargren, R. Soummer, M. Troy, J. Wallace, and E. Wishnow, in Proc. SPIE 5490, 359 (2004).

Morzinski, K.

J. Evans, K. Morzinski, L. Reza, S. Severson, L. Poyneer, B. Macintosh, D. Dillon, G. Sommargren, D. Palmer, D. Gavel, and S. Olivier, in Proc. SPIE 5905, 59050Y (2005).

Nguyen, N.

G. Sommargren, D. Phillion, M. Johnson, N. Nguyen, A. Barty, F. Snell, D. Dillon, and L. Bradsher, in Proc. SPIE 4688, 316 (2002).

Olivier, S.

J. Evans, K. Morzinski, L. Reza, S. Severson, L. Poyneer, B. Macintosh, D. Dillon, G. Sommargren, D. Palmer, D. Gavel, and S. Olivier, in Proc. SPIE 5905, 59050Y (2005).

J. Evans, G. Sommargren, L. Poyneer, B. Macintosh, S. Severson, D. Dillon, A. Sheinis, D. Palmer, N. Kasdin, and S. Olivier, in Proc. SPIE 5490, 954 (2004).

B. Macintosh, B. Bauman, J. Evans, J. Graham, C. Lockwood, L. Poyneer, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, J. J. Green, J. Lloyd, R. Makidon, S. Olivier, D. Palmer, M. Perrin, S. Severson, A. Sheinis, A. Sivaramakrishnan, G. Sommargren, R. Soummer, M. Troy, J. Wallace, and E. Wishnow, in Proc. SPIE 5490, 359 (2004).

Palmer, D.

L. Poyneer, D. Palmer, K. LaFortune, and B. Bauman, in Proc. SPIE 5894, 58940N (2005).

J. Evans, K. Morzinski, L. Reza, S. Severson, L. Poyneer, B. Macintosh, D. Dillon, G. Sommargren, D. Palmer, D. Gavel, and S. Olivier, in Proc. SPIE 5905, 59050Y (2005).

J. Evans, G. Sommargren, L. Poyneer, B. Macintosh, S. Severson, D. Dillon, A. Sheinis, D. Palmer, N. Kasdin, and S. Olivier, in Proc. SPIE 5490, 954 (2004).

B. Macintosh, B. Bauman, J. Evans, J. Graham, C. Lockwood, L. Poyneer, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, J. J. Green, J. Lloyd, R. Makidon, S. Olivier, D. Palmer, M. Perrin, S. Severson, A. Sheinis, A. Sivaramakrishnan, G. Sommargren, R. Soummer, M. Troy, J. Wallace, and E. Wishnow, in Proc. SPIE 5490, 359 (2004).

Perrin, M.

B. Macintosh, B. Bauman, J. Evans, J. Graham, C. Lockwood, L. Poyneer, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, J. J. Green, J. Lloyd, R. Makidon, S. Olivier, D. Palmer, M. Perrin, S. Severson, A. Sheinis, A. Sivaramakrishnan, G. Sommargren, R. Soummer, M. Troy, J. Wallace, and E. Wishnow, in Proc. SPIE 5490, 359 (2004).

Petit, C.

Phillion, D.

G. Sommargren, D. Phillion, M. Johnson, N. Nguyen, A. Barty, F. Snell, D. Dillon, and L. Bradsher, in Proc. SPIE 4688, 316 (2002).

Poyneer, L.

L. Poyneer, D. Palmer, K. LaFortune, and B. Bauman, in Proc. SPIE 5894, 58940N (2005).

L. Poyneer and J.-P. Véran, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 1515 (2005).

J. Evans, K. Morzinski, L. Reza, S. Severson, L. Poyneer, B. Macintosh, D. Dillon, G. Sommargren, D. Palmer, D. Gavel, and S. Olivier, in Proc. SPIE 5905, 59050Y (2005).

J. Evans, G. Sommargren, L. Poyneer, B. Macintosh, S. Severson, D. Dillon, A. Sheinis, D. Palmer, N. Kasdin, and S. Olivier, in Proc. SPIE 5490, 954 (2004).

L. Poyneer and B. Macintosh, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 810 (2004).

B. Macintosh, B. Bauman, J. Evans, J. Graham, C. Lockwood, L. Poyneer, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, J. J. Green, J. Lloyd, R. Makidon, S. Olivier, D. Palmer, M. Perrin, S. Severson, A. Sheinis, A. Sivaramakrishnan, G. Sommargren, R. Soummer, M. Troy, J. Wallace, and E. Wishnow, in Proc. SPIE 5490, 359 (2004).

Reza, L.

J. Evans, K. Morzinski, L. Reza, S. Severson, L. Poyneer, B. Macintosh, D. Dillon, G. Sommargren, D. Palmer, D. Gavel, and S. Olivier, in Proc. SPIE 5905, 59050Y (2005).

Rousset, G.

Severson, S.

J. Evans, K. Morzinski, L. Reza, S. Severson, L. Poyneer, B. Macintosh, D. Dillon, G. Sommargren, D. Palmer, D. Gavel, and S. Olivier, in Proc. SPIE 5905, 59050Y (2005).

J. Evans, G. Sommargren, L. Poyneer, B. Macintosh, S. Severson, D. Dillon, A. Sheinis, D. Palmer, N. Kasdin, and S. Olivier, in Proc. SPIE 5490, 954 (2004).

B. Macintosh, B. Bauman, J. Evans, J. Graham, C. Lockwood, L. Poyneer, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, J. J. Green, J. Lloyd, R. Makidon, S. Olivier, D. Palmer, M. Perrin, S. Severson, A. Sheinis, A. Sivaramakrishnan, G. Sommargren, R. Soummer, M. Troy, J. Wallace, and E. Wishnow, in Proc. SPIE 5490, 359 (2004).

Sheinis, A.

B. Macintosh, B. Bauman, J. Evans, J. Graham, C. Lockwood, L. Poyneer, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, J. J. Green, J. Lloyd, R. Makidon, S. Olivier, D. Palmer, M. Perrin, S. Severson, A. Sheinis, A. Sivaramakrishnan, G. Sommargren, R. Soummer, M. Troy, J. Wallace, and E. Wishnow, in Proc. SPIE 5490, 359 (2004).

J. Evans, G. Sommargren, L. Poyneer, B. Macintosh, S. Severson, D. Dillon, A. Sheinis, D. Palmer, N. Kasdin, and S. Olivier, in Proc. SPIE 5490, 954 (2004).

Sivaramakrishnan, A.

B. Macintosh, B. Bauman, J. Evans, J. Graham, C. Lockwood, L. Poyneer, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, J. J. Green, J. Lloyd, R. Makidon, S. Olivier, D. Palmer, M. Perrin, S. Severson, A. Sheinis, A. Sivaramakrishnan, G. Sommargren, R. Soummer, M. Troy, J. Wallace, and E. Wishnow, in Proc. SPIE 5490, 359 (2004).

Snell, F.

G. Sommargren, D. Phillion, M. Johnson, N. Nguyen, A. Barty, F. Snell, D. Dillon, and L. Bradsher, in Proc. SPIE 4688, 316 (2002).

Sommargren, G.

J. Evans, K. Morzinski, L. Reza, S. Severson, L. Poyneer, B. Macintosh, D. Dillon, G. Sommargren, D. Palmer, D. Gavel, and S. Olivier, in Proc. SPIE 5905, 59050Y (2005).

B. Macintosh, B. Bauman, J. Evans, J. Graham, C. Lockwood, L. Poyneer, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, J. J. Green, J. Lloyd, R. Makidon, S. Olivier, D. Palmer, M. Perrin, S. Severson, A. Sheinis, A. Sivaramakrishnan, G. Sommargren, R. Soummer, M. Troy, J. Wallace, and E. Wishnow, in Proc. SPIE 5490, 359 (2004).

J. Evans, G. Sommargren, L. Poyneer, B. Macintosh, S. Severson, D. Dillon, A. Sheinis, D. Palmer, N. Kasdin, and S. Olivier, in Proc. SPIE 5490, 954 (2004).

G. Sommargren, D. Phillion, M. Johnson, N. Nguyen, A. Barty, F. Snell, D. Dillon, and L. Bradsher, in Proc. SPIE 4688, 316 (2002).

Soummer, R.

B. Macintosh, B. Bauman, J. Evans, J. Graham, C. Lockwood, L. Poyneer, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, J. J. Green, J. Lloyd, R. Makidon, S. Olivier, D. Palmer, M. Perrin, S. Severson, A. Sheinis, A. Sivaramakrishnan, G. Sommargren, R. Soummer, M. Troy, J. Wallace, and E. Wishnow, in Proc. SPIE 5490, 359 (2004).

Troy, M.

B. Macintosh, B. Bauman, J. Evans, J. Graham, C. Lockwood, L. Poyneer, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, J. J. Green, J. Lloyd, R. Makidon, S. Olivier, D. Palmer, M. Perrin, S. Severson, A. Sheinis, A. Sivaramakrishnan, G. Sommargren, R. Soummer, M. Troy, J. Wallace, and E. Wishnow, in Proc. SPIE 5490, 359 (2004).

Véran, J.-P.

Wallace, J.

B. Macintosh, B. Bauman, J. Evans, J. Graham, C. Lockwood, L. Poyneer, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, J. J. Green, J. Lloyd, R. Makidon, S. Olivier, D. Palmer, M. Perrin, S. Severson, A. Sheinis, A. Sivaramakrishnan, G. Sommargren, R. Soummer, M. Troy, J. Wallace, and E. Wishnow, in Proc. SPIE 5490, 359 (2004).

Wishnow, E.

B. Macintosh, B. Bauman, J. Evans, J. Graham, C. Lockwood, L. Poyneer, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, J. J. Green, J. Lloyd, R. Makidon, S. Olivier, D. Palmer, M. Perrin, S. Severson, A. Sheinis, A. Sivaramakrishnan, G. Sommargren, R. Soummer, M. Troy, J. Wallace, and E. Wishnow, in Proc. SPIE 5490, 359 (2004).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (5)

J. Evans, G. Sommargren, L. Poyneer, B. Macintosh, S. Severson, D. Dillon, A. Sheinis, D. Palmer, N. Kasdin, and S. Olivier, in Proc. SPIE 5490, 954 (2004).

G. Sommargren, D. Phillion, M. Johnson, N. Nguyen, A. Barty, F. Snell, D. Dillon, and L. Bradsher, in Proc. SPIE 4688, 316 (2002).

L. Poyneer, D. Palmer, K. LaFortune, and B. Bauman, in Proc. SPIE 5894, 58940N (2005).

J. Evans, K. Morzinski, L. Reza, S. Severson, L. Poyneer, B. Macintosh, D. Dillon, G. Sommargren, D. Palmer, D. Gavel, and S. Olivier, in Proc. SPIE 5905, 59050Y (2005).

B. Macintosh, B. Bauman, J. Evans, J. Graham, C. Lockwood, L. Poyneer, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, J. J. Green, J. Lloyd, R. Makidon, S. Olivier, D. Palmer, M. Perrin, S. Severson, A. Sheinis, A. Sivaramakrishnan, G. Sommargren, R. Soummer, M. Troy, J. Wallace, and E. Wishnow, in Proc. SPIE 5490, 359 (2004).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the testbed. The MEMS can be controlled in closed loop using measurements from either the PSDI or the spatially filtered Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor. A far-field imaging CCD can be swapped in to take science images.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Far-field images (log scale) after correction of a static phase plate in closed loop without (left) and with (right) the spatial filter. The improvement in correction, which occurs out to λ 2 d , manifests as much better defined Airy rings.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

PSDs (log scale) of the residual phases without (left) and with (right) the spatial filter. The dark hole that results from improved correction is visible out to the cutoff frequency 1 2 d .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

PSDs of uncorrected phase plate and phase residuals after correction without and with the spatial filter. The radial average of PSD is plotted against the spatial frequency in multiples of the cutoff frequency 1 2 d . In this specific case, the use of the spatial filter provides additional attenuation of the residual phase power on a level comparable to the improvement with AO alone.

Metrics