Abstract

We report on an unusual permanent recording of light helicity on optically achiral metals. Following a number of circularly polarized (CP) or elliptically polarized (EP) femtosecond laser pulses, well-defined periodic surface structures are found on metal surfaces. These surface structures show different orientation when formed by left CP/EP compared with right CP/EP light. The formation of these structures is attributed to the interference between the incident light and the excited surface plasmons. To our knowledge, this is the only phenomenon that can permanently record light helicity with an optically inactive material.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. Pasteur, Ann. Chim. Phys. 24, 442 (1848).
  2. J. Viefhaus, L. Avaldi, G. Snell, M. Wiedenhöft, R. Hentges, A. Rüdel, F. Schäfers, D. Menke, U. Heinzmann, A. Engelns, J. Berakdar, H. Klar, and U. Becker, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3975 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. H. Daimon, T. Nakatani, S. Imada, S. Suga, Y. Kagoshima, and T. Miyahara, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 1480 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. M. Fauchet and A. E. Siegman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 824 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Oron and G. Sorensen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 782 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. J. Ehrlich, S. R. J. Brueck, and J. Y. Tsao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 1 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, H. M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, Phys. Rev. B 27, 1155 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  8. F. Keilmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 2097 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Wang and C. Guo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 251914 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. M. van Driel, J. E. Sipe, and J. F. Young, Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1955 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. R. Sambles, G. W. Bradbery, and F. Yang, Contemp. Phys. 32, 173 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 1999).
  13. E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985).
  14. J. E. Sipe, J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, and H. M. van Driel, Phys. Rev. B 27, 1141 (1983).
    [CrossRef]

2005

J. Wang and C. Guo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 251914 (2005).
[CrossRef]

1996

J. Viefhaus, L. Avaldi, G. Snell, M. Wiedenhöft, R. Hentges, A. Rüdel, F. Schäfers, D. Menke, U. Heinzmann, A. Engelns, J. Berakdar, H. Klar, and U. Becker, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3975 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

H. Daimon, T. Nakatani, S. Imada, S. Suga, Y. Kagoshima, and T. Miyahara, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 1480 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991

J. R. Sambles, G. W. Bradbery, and F. Yang, Contemp. Phys. 32, 173 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1983

J. E. Sipe, J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, and H. M. van Driel, Phys. Rev. B 27, 1141 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, H. M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, Phys. Rev. B 27, 1155 (1983).
[CrossRef]

F. Keilmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 2097 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982

D. J. Ehrlich, S. R. J. Brueck, and J. Y. Tsao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 1 (1982).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Fauchet and A. E. Siegman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 824 (1982).
[CrossRef]

H. M. van Driel, J. E. Sipe, and J. F. Young, Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1955 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1979

M. Oron and G. Sorensen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 782 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1848

L. Pasteur, Ann. Chim. Phys. 24, 442 (1848).

Avaldi, L.

J. Viefhaus, L. Avaldi, G. Snell, M. Wiedenhöft, R. Hentges, A. Rüdel, F. Schäfers, D. Menke, U. Heinzmann, A. Engelns, J. Berakdar, H. Klar, and U. Becker, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3975 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Becker, U.

J. Viefhaus, L. Avaldi, G. Snell, M. Wiedenhöft, R. Hentges, A. Rüdel, F. Schäfers, D. Menke, U. Heinzmann, A. Engelns, J. Berakdar, H. Klar, and U. Becker, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3975 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berakdar, J.

J. Viefhaus, L. Avaldi, G. Snell, M. Wiedenhöft, R. Hentges, A. Rüdel, F. Schäfers, D. Menke, U. Heinzmann, A. Engelns, J. Berakdar, H. Klar, and U. Becker, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3975 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 1999).

Bradbery, G. W.

J. R. Sambles, G. W. Bradbery, and F. Yang, Contemp. Phys. 32, 173 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Brueck, S. R. J.

D. J. Ehrlich, S. R. J. Brueck, and J. Y. Tsao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 1 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Daimon, H.

H. Daimon, T. Nakatani, S. Imada, S. Suga, Y. Kagoshima, and T. Miyahara, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 1480 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ehrlich, D. J.

D. J. Ehrlich, S. R. J. Brueck, and J. Y. Tsao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 1 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Engelns, A.

J. Viefhaus, L. Avaldi, G. Snell, M. Wiedenhöft, R. Hentges, A. Rüdel, F. Schäfers, D. Menke, U. Heinzmann, A. Engelns, J. Berakdar, H. Klar, and U. Becker, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3975 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fauchet, P. M.

P. M. Fauchet and A. E. Siegman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 824 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Guo, C.

J. Wang and C. Guo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 251914 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Heinzmann, U.

J. Viefhaus, L. Avaldi, G. Snell, M. Wiedenhöft, R. Hentges, A. Rüdel, F. Schäfers, D. Menke, U. Heinzmann, A. Engelns, J. Berakdar, H. Klar, and U. Becker, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3975 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hentges, R.

J. Viefhaus, L. Avaldi, G. Snell, M. Wiedenhöft, R. Hentges, A. Rüdel, F. Schäfers, D. Menke, U. Heinzmann, A. Engelns, J. Berakdar, H. Klar, and U. Becker, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3975 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Imada, S.

H. Daimon, T. Nakatani, S. Imada, S. Suga, Y. Kagoshima, and T. Miyahara, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 1480 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kagoshima, Y.

H. Daimon, T. Nakatani, S. Imada, S. Suga, Y. Kagoshima, and T. Miyahara, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 1480 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Keilmann, F.

F. Keilmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 2097 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Klar, H.

J. Viefhaus, L. Avaldi, G. Snell, M. Wiedenhöft, R. Hentges, A. Rüdel, F. Schäfers, D. Menke, U. Heinzmann, A. Engelns, J. Berakdar, H. Klar, and U. Becker, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3975 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Menke, D.

J. Viefhaus, L. Avaldi, G. Snell, M. Wiedenhöft, R. Hentges, A. Rüdel, F. Schäfers, D. Menke, U. Heinzmann, A. Engelns, J. Berakdar, H. Klar, and U. Becker, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3975 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miyahara, T.

H. Daimon, T. Nakatani, S. Imada, S. Suga, Y. Kagoshima, and T. Miyahara, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 1480 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nakatani, T.

H. Daimon, T. Nakatani, S. Imada, S. Suga, Y. Kagoshima, and T. Miyahara, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 1480 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Oron, M.

M. Oron and G. Sorensen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 782 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Palik, E. D.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985).

Pasteur, L.

L. Pasteur, Ann. Chim. Phys. 24, 442 (1848).

Preston, J. S.

J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, H. M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, Phys. Rev. B 27, 1155 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Sipe, J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, and H. M. van Driel, Phys. Rev. B 27, 1141 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Rüdel, A.

J. Viefhaus, L. Avaldi, G. Snell, M. Wiedenhöft, R. Hentges, A. Rüdel, F. Schäfers, D. Menke, U. Heinzmann, A. Engelns, J. Berakdar, H. Klar, and U. Becker, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3975 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sambles, J. R.

J. R. Sambles, G. W. Bradbery, and F. Yang, Contemp. Phys. 32, 173 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Schäfers, F.

J. Viefhaus, L. Avaldi, G. Snell, M. Wiedenhöft, R. Hentges, A. Rüdel, F. Schäfers, D. Menke, U. Heinzmann, A. Engelns, J. Berakdar, H. Klar, and U. Becker, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3975 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siegman, A. E.

P. M. Fauchet and A. E. Siegman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 824 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Sipe, J. E.

J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, H. M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, Phys. Rev. B 27, 1155 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Sipe, J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, and H. M. van Driel, Phys. Rev. B 27, 1141 (1983).
[CrossRef]

H. M. van Driel, J. E. Sipe, and J. F. Young, Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1955 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Snell, G.

J. Viefhaus, L. Avaldi, G. Snell, M. Wiedenhöft, R. Hentges, A. Rüdel, F. Schäfers, D. Menke, U. Heinzmann, A. Engelns, J. Berakdar, H. Klar, and U. Becker, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3975 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sorensen, G.

M. Oron and G. Sorensen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 782 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Suga, S.

H. Daimon, T. Nakatani, S. Imada, S. Suga, Y. Kagoshima, and T. Miyahara, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 1480 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tsao, J. Y.

D. J. Ehrlich, S. R. J. Brueck, and J. Y. Tsao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 1 (1982).
[CrossRef]

van Driel, H. M.

J. E. Sipe, J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, and H. M. van Driel, Phys. Rev. B 27, 1141 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, H. M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, Phys. Rev. B 27, 1155 (1983).
[CrossRef]

H. M. van Driel, J. E. Sipe, and J. F. Young, Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1955 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Viefhaus, J.

J. Viefhaus, L. Avaldi, G. Snell, M. Wiedenhöft, R. Hentges, A. Rüdel, F. Schäfers, D. Menke, U. Heinzmann, A. Engelns, J. Berakdar, H. Klar, and U. Becker, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3975 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

J. Wang and C. Guo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 251914 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wiedenhöft, M.

J. Viefhaus, L. Avaldi, G. Snell, M. Wiedenhöft, R. Hentges, A. Rüdel, F. Schäfers, D. Menke, U. Heinzmann, A. Engelns, J. Berakdar, H. Klar, and U. Becker, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3975 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 1999).

Yang, F.

J. R. Sambles, G. W. Bradbery, and F. Yang, Contemp. Phys. 32, 173 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Young, J. F.

J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, H. M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, Phys. Rev. B 27, 1155 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Sipe, J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, and H. M. van Driel, Phys. Rev. B 27, 1141 (1983).
[CrossRef]

H. M. van Driel, J. E. Sipe, and J. F. Young, Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1955 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Chim. Phys.

L. Pasteur, Ann. Chim. Phys. 24, 442 (1848).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. Wang and C. Guo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 251914 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Fauchet and A. E. Siegman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 824 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. Oron and G. Sorensen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 782 (1979).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Ehrlich, S. R. J. Brueck, and J. Y. Tsao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 1 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Contemp. Phys.

J. R. Sambles, G. W. Bradbery, and F. Yang, Contemp. Phys. 32, 173 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

H. Daimon, T. Nakatani, S. Imada, S. Suga, Y. Kagoshima, and T. Miyahara, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 1480 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

J. E. Sipe, J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, and H. M. van Driel, Phys. Rev. B 27, 1141 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, H. M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, Phys. Rev. B 27, 1155 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

F. Keilmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 2097 (1983).
[CrossRef]

H. M. van Driel, J. E. Sipe, and J. F. Young, Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1955 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Viefhaus, L. Avaldi, G. Snell, M. Wiedenhöft, R. Hentges, A. Rüdel, F. Schäfers, D. Menke, U. Heinzmann, A. Engelns, J. Berakdar, H. Klar, and U. Becker, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3975 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 1999).

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scanning electron microscope pictures of Cu surface structures induced by a train of 500 pulses incident from the left with an incident angle of 70° at a fluence of 270 mJ cm 2 . (a) Overview of surface modifications by EP light; (b), (c), and (d) detailed views of the surface structures at the location marked by the rectangular symbol in (a) with left-hand ellipticity E y E x = 0.44 , 0.78, and 1, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Surface structures on Cu following a train of (a) left- and (b) right-CP femtosecond pulses incident from the left with the incident angle of 70°.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Periods of surface structures on Cu induced by left CP light at several different incident angles are shown in the figure by symbol (*). The dotted curve is drawn for eye guiding. The solid curves are the calculations based on the vector relationship in the inset with different α.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calculation results of the efficacy factor of Cu along 120° (solid curve) and 120 ° (dashed curve) with respect to the beam incident plane. The external light is left CP at 800 nm and incident at an angle of 70°. The refraction index for Cu is n Cu = 0.25 + 5.034 i .[13] The inset shows the detail of the efficacy factor at the peak position.

Equations (1)

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cos ( π α ) = k i 2 + g 2 k sp 2 2 k i g .

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