Abstract

Ablation of holes with diameters as small as 82nm and very clean walls was obtained in poly(methyl methacrylate) focusing pulses from a Ne-like Ar 46.9nm compact capillary-discharge laser with a freestanding Fresnel zone plate diffracting into third order. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using focused soft x-ray laser beams for the direct nanoscale patterning of materials and the development of new nanoprobes.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. I. Avrutsky, D. G. Georgiev, D. Frankstein, G. Auner, and G. Newaz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2391 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. P. Pronko, S. K. Dutta, J. Squier, J. V. Rudd, D. Du, and G. Mourou, Opt. Commun. 114, 106 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  3. F. Korte, J. Serbin, J. Koch, A. Egbert, C. Fallnich, A. Ostendorf, and B. N. Chichkov, Appl. Phys. A 77, 229 (2003).
  4. P. Simon and J. Ihlemann, Appl. Surf. Sci. 109/110, 25 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Chimmalgi, C. P. Grigoropoulos, and K. Komvopoulos, J. Appl. Phys. 97, 104319 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. Wysocki, J. Heitz, and D. Bauerle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2025 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. R. Benware, C. D. Macchietto, C. H. Moreno, and J. J. Rocca, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5804 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. D. Macchietto, B. R. Benware, and J. J. Rocca, Opt. Lett. 24, 1115 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. E. H. Anderson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 27 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. T. Attwood, Soft X-Rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation (Cambridge U. Press, 1999).
  11. B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  12. L. Juha, M. Bittner, D. Chvostova, J. Krasa, Z. Otcenasek, A. R. Präg, J. Ullschmied, Z. Pientka, J. Krzywinski, J. B. Pelka, A. Wawro, M. E. Grisham, G. Vaschenko, C. S. Menoni, and J. J. Rocca, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 034109 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Q. Cao and J. Jahns, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 561 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (1)

E. H. Anderson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

A. Chimmalgi, C. P. Grigoropoulos, and K. Komvopoulos, J. Appl. Phys. 97, 104319 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Juha, M. Bittner, D. Chvostova, J. Krasa, Z. Otcenasek, A. R. Präg, J. Ullschmied, Z. Pientka, J. Krzywinski, J. B. Pelka, A. Wawro, M. E. Grisham, G. Vaschenko, C. S. Menoni, and J. J. Rocca, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 034109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

Q. Cao and J. Jahns, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 561 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Wysocki, J. Heitz, and D. Bauerle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2025 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. Avrutsky, D. G. Georgiev, D. Frankstein, G. Auner, and G. Newaz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2391 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

F. Korte, J. Serbin, J. Koch, A. Egbert, C. Fallnich, A. Ostendorf, and B. N. Chichkov, Appl. Phys. A 77, 229 (2003).

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

B. R. Benware, C. D. Macchietto, C. H. Moreno, and J. J. Rocca, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5804 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

P. Simon and J. Ihlemann, Appl. Surf. Sci. 109/110, 25 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

P. P. Pronko, S. K. Dutta, J. Squier, J. V. Rudd, D. Du, and G. Mourou, Opt. Commun. 114, 106 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, E. H.

E. H. Anderson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Attwood, D. T.

D. T. Attwood, Soft X-Rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation (Cambridge U. Press, 1999).

Auner, G.

I. Avrutsky, D. G. Georgiev, D. Frankstein, G. Auner, and G. Newaz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2391 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Avrutsky, I.

I. Avrutsky, D. G. Georgiev, D. Frankstein, G. Auner, and G. Newaz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2391 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bauerle, D.

G. Wysocki, J. Heitz, and D. Bauerle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2025 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Benware, B. R.

C. D. Macchietto, B. R. Benware, and J. J. Rocca, Opt. Lett. 24, 1115 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Benware, C. D. Macchietto, C. H. Moreno, and J. J. Rocca, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5804 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bittner, M.

L. Juha, M. Bittner, D. Chvostova, J. Krasa, Z. Otcenasek, A. R. Präg, J. Ullschmied, Z. Pientka, J. Krzywinski, J. B. Pelka, A. Wawro, M. E. Grisham, G. Vaschenko, C. S. Menoni, and J. J. Rocca, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 034109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cao, Q.

Chichkov, B. N.

F. Korte, J. Serbin, J. Koch, A. Egbert, C. Fallnich, A. Ostendorf, and B. N. Chichkov, Appl. Phys. A 77, 229 (2003).

Chimmalgi, A.

A. Chimmalgi, C. P. Grigoropoulos, and K. Komvopoulos, J. Appl. Phys. 97, 104319 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chvostova, D.

L. Juha, M. Bittner, D. Chvostova, J. Krasa, Z. Otcenasek, A. R. Präg, J. Ullschmied, Z. Pientka, J. Krzywinski, J. B. Pelka, A. Wawro, M. E. Grisham, G. Vaschenko, C. S. Menoni, and J. J. Rocca, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 034109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Davis, J. C.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Du, D.

P. P. Pronko, S. K. Dutta, J. Squier, J. V. Rudd, D. Du, and G. Mourou, Opt. Commun. 114, 106 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dutta, S. K.

P. P. Pronko, S. K. Dutta, J. Squier, J. V. Rudd, D. Du, and G. Mourou, Opt. Commun. 114, 106 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Egbert, A.

F. Korte, J. Serbin, J. Koch, A. Egbert, C. Fallnich, A. Ostendorf, and B. N. Chichkov, Appl. Phys. A 77, 229 (2003).

Fallnich, C.

F. Korte, J. Serbin, J. Koch, A. Egbert, C. Fallnich, A. Ostendorf, and B. N. Chichkov, Appl. Phys. A 77, 229 (2003).

Frankstein, D.

I. Avrutsky, D. G. Georgiev, D. Frankstein, G. Auner, and G. Newaz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2391 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Georgiev, D. G.

I. Avrutsky, D. G. Georgiev, D. Frankstein, G. Auner, and G. Newaz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2391 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Grigoropoulos, C. P.

A. Chimmalgi, C. P. Grigoropoulos, and K. Komvopoulos, J. Appl. Phys. 97, 104319 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Grisham, M. E.

L. Juha, M. Bittner, D. Chvostova, J. Krasa, Z. Otcenasek, A. R. Präg, J. Ullschmied, Z. Pientka, J. Krzywinski, J. B. Pelka, A. Wawro, M. E. Grisham, G. Vaschenko, C. S. Menoni, and J. J. Rocca, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 034109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gullikson, E. M.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Heitz, J.

G. Wysocki, J. Heitz, and D. Bauerle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2025 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Henke, B. L.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ihlemann, J.

P. Simon and J. Ihlemann, Appl. Surf. Sci. 109/110, 25 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jahns, J.

Juha, L.

L. Juha, M. Bittner, D. Chvostova, J. Krasa, Z. Otcenasek, A. R. Präg, J. Ullschmied, Z. Pientka, J. Krzywinski, J. B. Pelka, A. Wawro, M. E. Grisham, G. Vaschenko, C. S. Menoni, and J. J. Rocca, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 034109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Koch, J.

F. Korte, J. Serbin, J. Koch, A. Egbert, C. Fallnich, A. Ostendorf, and B. N. Chichkov, Appl. Phys. A 77, 229 (2003).

Komvopoulos, K.

A. Chimmalgi, C. P. Grigoropoulos, and K. Komvopoulos, J. Appl. Phys. 97, 104319 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Korte, F.

F. Korte, J. Serbin, J. Koch, A. Egbert, C. Fallnich, A. Ostendorf, and B. N. Chichkov, Appl. Phys. A 77, 229 (2003).

Krasa, J.

L. Juha, M. Bittner, D. Chvostova, J. Krasa, Z. Otcenasek, A. R. Präg, J. Ullschmied, Z. Pientka, J. Krzywinski, J. B. Pelka, A. Wawro, M. E. Grisham, G. Vaschenko, C. S. Menoni, and J. J. Rocca, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 034109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Krzywinski, J.

L. Juha, M. Bittner, D. Chvostova, J. Krasa, Z. Otcenasek, A. R. Präg, J. Ullschmied, Z. Pientka, J. Krzywinski, J. B. Pelka, A. Wawro, M. E. Grisham, G. Vaschenko, C. S. Menoni, and J. J. Rocca, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 034109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Macchietto, C. D.

C. D. Macchietto, B. R. Benware, and J. J. Rocca, Opt. Lett. 24, 1115 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Benware, C. D. Macchietto, C. H. Moreno, and J. J. Rocca, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5804 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Menoni, C. S.

L. Juha, M. Bittner, D. Chvostova, J. Krasa, Z. Otcenasek, A. R. Präg, J. Ullschmied, Z. Pientka, J. Krzywinski, J. B. Pelka, A. Wawro, M. E. Grisham, G. Vaschenko, C. S. Menoni, and J. J. Rocca, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 034109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Moreno, C. H.

B. R. Benware, C. D. Macchietto, C. H. Moreno, and J. J. Rocca, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5804 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mourou, G.

P. P. Pronko, S. K. Dutta, J. Squier, J. V. Rudd, D. Du, and G. Mourou, Opt. Commun. 114, 106 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Newaz, G.

I. Avrutsky, D. G. Georgiev, D. Frankstein, G. Auner, and G. Newaz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2391 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ostendorf, A.

F. Korte, J. Serbin, J. Koch, A. Egbert, C. Fallnich, A. Ostendorf, and B. N. Chichkov, Appl. Phys. A 77, 229 (2003).

Otcenasek, Z.

L. Juha, M. Bittner, D. Chvostova, J. Krasa, Z. Otcenasek, A. R. Präg, J. Ullschmied, Z. Pientka, J. Krzywinski, J. B. Pelka, A. Wawro, M. E. Grisham, G. Vaschenko, C. S. Menoni, and J. J. Rocca, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 034109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pelka, J. B.

L. Juha, M. Bittner, D. Chvostova, J. Krasa, Z. Otcenasek, A. R. Präg, J. Ullschmied, Z. Pientka, J. Krzywinski, J. B. Pelka, A. Wawro, M. E. Grisham, G. Vaschenko, C. S. Menoni, and J. J. Rocca, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 034109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pientka, Z.

L. Juha, M. Bittner, D. Chvostova, J. Krasa, Z. Otcenasek, A. R. Präg, J. Ullschmied, Z. Pientka, J. Krzywinski, J. B. Pelka, A. Wawro, M. E. Grisham, G. Vaschenko, C. S. Menoni, and J. J. Rocca, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 034109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Präg, A. R.

L. Juha, M. Bittner, D. Chvostova, J. Krasa, Z. Otcenasek, A. R. Präg, J. Ullschmied, Z. Pientka, J. Krzywinski, J. B. Pelka, A. Wawro, M. E. Grisham, G. Vaschenko, C. S. Menoni, and J. J. Rocca, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 034109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pronko, P. P.

P. P. Pronko, S. K. Dutta, J. Squier, J. V. Rudd, D. Du, and G. Mourou, Opt. Commun. 114, 106 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rocca, J. J.

L. Juha, M. Bittner, D. Chvostova, J. Krasa, Z. Otcenasek, A. R. Präg, J. Ullschmied, Z. Pientka, J. Krzywinski, J. B. Pelka, A. Wawro, M. E. Grisham, G. Vaschenko, C. S. Menoni, and J. J. Rocca, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 034109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Macchietto, B. R. Benware, and J. J. Rocca, Opt. Lett. 24, 1115 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Benware, C. D. Macchietto, C. H. Moreno, and J. J. Rocca, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5804 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rudd, J. V.

P. P. Pronko, S. K. Dutta, J. Squier, J. V. Rudd, D. Du, and G. Mourou, Opt. Commun. 114, 106 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Serbin, J.

F. Korte, J. Serbin, J. Koch, A. Egbert, C. Fallnich, A. Ostendorf, and B. N. Chichkov, Appl. Phys. A 77, 229 (2003).

Simon, P.

P. Simon and J. Ihlemann, Appl. Surf. Sci. 109/110, 25 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Squier, J.

P. P. Pronko, S. K. Dutta, J. Squier, J. V. Rudd, D. Du, and G. Mourou, Opt. Commun. 114, 106 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ullschmied, J.

L. Juha, M. Bittner, D. Chvostova, J. Krasa, Z. Otcenasek, A. R. Präg, J. Ullschmied, Z. Pientka, J. Krzywinski, J. B. Pelka, A. Wawro, M. E. Grisham, G. Vaschenko, C. S. Menoni, and J. J. Rocca, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 034109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vaschenko, G.

L. Juha, M. Bittner, D. Chvostova, J. Krasa, Z. Otcenasek, A. R. Präg, J. Ullschmied, Z. Pientka, J. Krzywinski, J. B. Pelka, A. Wawro, M. E. Grisham, G. Vaschenko, C. S. Menoni, and J. J. Rocca, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 034109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wawro, A.

L. Juha, M. Bittner, D. Chvostova, J. Krasa, Z. Otcenasek, A. R. Präg, J. Ullschmied, Z. Pientka, J. Krzywinski, J. B. Pelka, A. Wawro, M. E. Grisham, G. Vaschenko, C. S. Menoni, and J. J. Rocca, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 034109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wysocki, G.

G. Wysocki, J. Heitz, and D. Bauerle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2025 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A (1)

F. Korte, J. Serbin, J. Koch, A. Egbert, C. Fallnich, A. Ostendorf, and B. N. Chichkov, Appl. Phys. A 77, 229 (2003).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

I. Avrutsky, D. G. Georgiev, D. Frankstein, G. Auner, and G. Newaz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2391 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Wysocki, J. Heitz, and D. Bauerle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2025 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Juha, M. Bittner, D. Chvostova, J. Krasa, Z. Otcenasek, A. R. Präg, J. Ullschmied, Z. Pientka, J. Krzywinski, J. B. Pelka, A. Wawro, M. E. Grisham, G. Vaschenko, C. S. Menoni, and J. J. Rocca, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 034109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

P. Simon and J. Ihlemann, Appl. Surf. Sci. 109/110, 25 (1997).
[CrossRef]

At. Data Nucl. Data Tables (1)

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

E. H. Anderson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. Chimmalgi, C. P. Grigoropoulos, and K. Komvopoulos, J. Appl. Phys. 97, 104319 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

P. P. Pronko, S. K. Dutta, J. Squier, J. V. Rudd, D. Du, and G. Mourou, Opt. Commun. 114, 106 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

B. R. Benware, C. D. Macchietto, C. H. Moreno, and J. J. Rocca, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5804 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

D. T. Attwood, Soft X-Rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation (Cambridge U. Press, 1999).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the soft x-ray laser ablation setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) AFM image of the ablation crater produced in PMMA using first diffraction-order focusing and 36 × attenuation; (b) cross sections of AFM images of ablated craters obtained with attenuation factors of 1, 6, 14, and 36 × .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

AFM image of a set of consecutive ablation craters showing good shot-to-shot reproducibility. The top row of the craters was obtained with larger beam attenuation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Cross sections of the ablation craters obtained with the third-order focus of the zone plate and attenuation factors of 1× (lower trace) and 5× (upper trace).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Calculated diffraction pattern at the third-order focal plane, 710 μ m from the FZP (dashed curve), and at 7.5 μ m away from it (solid curve). The broad intensity distribution at the focal plane arises from spherical aberrations. The central peak in the intensity distribution has a FWHM of 268 nm at the focal plane and narrows down to 106 nm , 7.5 μ m away. The inset shows an AFM image of a typical ablation pattern obtained outside of the focal plane without attenuation.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

AFM image of an 82 nm diameter crater obtained placing the sample 7 μ m away from the third diffraction-order focal plane. The inset shows the crater’s cross section.

Metrics