Abstract

We demonstrate a method for the measurement of the instantaneous duration of femtosecond electron pulses using the ponderomotive force of an intense ultrashort laser pulse. An analysis procedure for the extraction of the electron pulse duration from the transient change of the transverse electron beam profile is proposed. The durations of the electron pulses generated in our setup were determined to be 410±30fs.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. R. Dwyer, C. T. Hebeisen, R. Ernstorfer, M. Harb, V. B. Deyirmenjian, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 364, 741 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. W. E. King, G. H. Campbell, A. Frank, B. Reed, J. F. Schmerge, B. J. Siwick, B. C. Stuart, and P. M. Weber, J. Appl. Phys. 97, 111101 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. B. J. Siwick, J. R. Dwyer, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 1643 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Watanabe, M. Uesaka, J. Sugahara, T. Ueda, K. Yoshii, Y. Shibata, F. Sakai, S. Kondo, M. Kando, H. Kotaki, and K. Nakajima, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 437, 1 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. B. J. Siwick, A. A. Green, C. T. Hebeisen, and R. J. D. Miller, Opt. Lett. 30, 1057 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. W. B. Kibble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 16, 1054 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  7. V. I. Balykin, M. V. Subbotin, and V. S. Letokhov, Opt. Commun. 129, 177 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. E. Irvine and A. Y. Elezzabi, Opt. Express 14, 4115 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. Banerjee, S. Sepke, R. Shah, A. Valenzuela, A. Maksimchuk, and D. Umstadter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 035004 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. B. J. Siwick, J. R. Dwyer, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, Science 302, 1382 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

J. R. Dwyer, C. T. Hebeisen, R. Ernstorfer, M. Harb, V. B. Deyirmenjian, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 364, 741 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Irvine and A. Y. Elezzabi, Opt. Express 14, 4115 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

W. E. King, G. H. Campbell, A. Frank, B. Reed, J. F. Schmerge, B. J. Siwick, B. C. Stuart, and P. M. Weber, J. Appl. Phys. 97, 111101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Banerjee, S. Sepke, R. Shah, A. Valenzuela, A. Maksimchuk, and D. Umstadter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 035004 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Siwick, A. A. Green, C. T. Hebeisen, and R. J. D. Miller, Opt. Lett. 30, 1057 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

B. J. Siwick, J. R. Dwyer, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, Science 302, 1382 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

B. J. Siwick, J. R. Dwyer, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 1643 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999

T. Watanabe, M. Uesaka, J. Sugahara, T. Ueda, K. Yoshii, Y. Shibata, F. Sakai, S. Kondo, M. Kando, H. Kotaki, and K. Nakajima, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 437, 1 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996

V. I. Balykin, M. V. Subbotin, and V. S. Letokhov, Opt. Commun. 129, 177 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1966

T. W. B. Kibble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 16, 1054 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Balykin, V. I.

V. I. Balykin, M. V. Subbotin, and V. S. Letokhov, Opt. Commun. 129, 177 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Banerjee, S.

S. Banerjee, S. Sepke, R. Shah, A. Valenzuela, A. Maksimchuk, and D. Umstadter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 035004 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campbell, G. H.

W. E. King, G. H. Campbell, A. Frank, B. Reed, J. F. Schmerge, B. J. Siwick, B. C. Stuart, and P. M. Weber, J. Appl. Phys. 97, 111101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Deyirmenjian, V. B.

J. R. Dwyer, C. T. Hebeisen, R. Ernstorfer, M. Harb, V. B. Deyirmenjian, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 364, 741 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dwyer, J. R.

J. R. Dwyer, C. T. Hebeisen, R. Ernstorfer, M. Harb, V. B. Deyirmenjian, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 364, 741 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Siwick, J. R. Dwyer, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, Science 302, 1382 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Siwick, J. R. Dwyer, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 1643 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Elezzabi, A. Y.

Ernstorfer, R.

J. R. Dwyer, C. T. Hebeisen, R. Ernstorfer, M. Harb, V. B. Deyirmenjian, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 364, 741 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Frank, A.

W. E. King, G. H. Campbell, A. Frank, B. Reed, J. F. Schmerge, B. J. Siwick, B. C. Stuart, and P. M. Weber, J. Appl. Phys. 97, 111101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Green, A. A.

Harb, M.

J. R. Dwyer, C. T. Hebeisen, R. Ernstorfer, M. Harb, V. B. Deyirmenjian, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 364, 741 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hebeisen, C. T.

J. R. Dwyer, C. T. Hebeisen, R. Ernstorfer, M. Harb, V. B. Deyirmenjian, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 364, 741 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Siwick, A. A. Green, C. T. Hebeisen, and R. J. D. Miller, Opt. Lett. 30, 1057 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Irvine, S. E.

Jordan, R. E.

J. R. Dwyer, C. T. Hebeisen, R. Ernstorfer, M. Harb, V. B. Deyirmenjian, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 364, 741 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Siwick, J. R. Dwyer, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, Science 302, 1382 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Siwick, J. R. Dwyer, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 1643 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kando, M.

T. Watanabe, M. Uesaka, J. Sugahara, T. Ueda, K. Yoshii, Y. Shibata, F. Sakai, S. Kondo, M. Kando, H. Kotaki, and K. Nakajima, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 437, 1 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kibble, T. W. B.

T. W. B. Kibble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 16, 1054 (1966).
[CrossRef]

King, W. E.

W. E. King, G. H. Campbell, A. Frank, B. Reed, J. F. Schmerge, B. J. Siwick, B. C. Stuart, and P. M. Weber, J. Appl. Phys. 97, 111101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kondo, S.

T. Watanabe, M. Uesaka, J. Sugahara, T. Ueda, K. Yoshii, Y. Shibata, F. Sakai, S. Kondo, M. Kando, H. Kotaki, and K. Nakajima, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 437, 1 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kotaki, H.

T. Watanabe, M. Uesaka, J. Sugahara, T. Ueda, K. Yoshii, Y. Shibata, F. Sakai, S. Kondo, M. Kando, H. Kotaki, and K. Nakajima, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 437, 1 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Letokhov, V. S.

V. I. Balykin, M. V. Subbotin, and V. S. Letokhov, Opt. Commun. 129, 177 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Maksimchuk, A.

S. Banerjee, S. Sepke, R. Shah, A. Valenzuela, A. Maksimchuk, and D. Umstadter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 035004 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, R. J. D.

J. R. Dwyer, C. T. Hebeisen, R. Ernstorfer, M. Harb, V. B. Deyirmenjian, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 364, 741 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Siwick, A. A. Green, C. T. Hebeisen, and R. J. D. Miller, Opt. Lett. 30, 1057 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Siwick, J. R. Dwyer, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, Science 302, 1382 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Siwick, J. R. Dwyer, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 1643 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nakajima, K.

T. Watanabe, M. Uesaka, J. Sugahara, T. Ueda, K. Yoshii, Y. Shibata, F. Sakai, S. Kondo, M. Kando, H. Kotaki, and K. Nakajima, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 437, 1 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Reed, B.

W. E. King, G. H. Campbell, A. Frank, B. Reed, J. F. Schmerge, B. J. Siwick, B. C. Stuart, and P. M. Weber, J. Appl. Phys. 97, 111101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, F.

T. Watanabe, M. Uesaka, J. Sugahara, T. Ueda, K. Yoshii, Y. Shibata, F. Sakai, S. Kondo, M. Kando, H. Kotaki, and K. Nakajima, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 437, 1 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schmerge, J. F.

W. E. King, G. H. Campbell, A. Frank, B. Reed, J. F. Schmerge, B. J. Siwick, B. C. Stuart, and P. M. Weber, J. Appl. Phys. 97, 111101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sepke, S.

S. Banerjee, S. Sepke, R. Shah, A. Valenzuela, A. Maksimchuk, and D. Umstadter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 035004 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shah, R.

S. Banerjee, S. Sepke, R. Shah, A. Valenzuela, A. Maksimchuk, and D. Umstadter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 035004 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shibata, Y.

T. Watanabe, M. Uesaka, J. Sugahara, T. Ueda, K. Yoshii, Y. Shibata, F. Sakai, S. Kondo, M. Kando, H. Kotaki, and K. Nakajima, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 437, 1 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Siwick, B. J.

W. E. King, G. H. Campbell, A. Frank, B. Reed, J. F. Schmerge, B. J. Siwick, B. C. Stuart, and P. M. Weber, J. Appl. Phys. 97, 111101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Siwick, A. A. Green, C. T. Hebeisen, and R. J. D. Miller, Opt. Lett. 30, 1057 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Siwick, J. R. Dwyer, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, Science 302, 1382 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Siwick, J. R. Dwyer, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 1643 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stuart, B. C.

W. E. King, G. H. Campbell, A. Frank, B. Reed, J. F. Schmerge, B. J. Siwick, B. C. Stuart, and P. M. Weber, J. Appl. Phys. 97, 111101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Subbotin, M. V.

V. I. Balykin, M. V. Subbotin, and V. S. Letokhov, Opt. Commun. 129, 177 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sugahara, J.

T. Watanabe, M. Uesaka, J. Sugahara, T. Ueda, K. Yoshii, Y. Shibata, F. Sakai, S. Kondo, M. Kando, H. Kotaki, and K. Nakajima, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 437, 1 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ueda, T.

T. Watanabe, M. Uesaka, J. Sugahara, T. Ueda, K. Yoshii, Y. Shibata, F. Sakai, S. Kondo, M. Kando, H. Kotaki, and K. Nakajima, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 437, 1 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Uesaka, M.

T. Watanabe, M. Uesaka, J. Sugahara, T. Ueda, K. Yoshii, Y. Shibata, F. Sakai, S. Kondo, M. Kando, H. Kotaki, and K. Nakajima, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 437, 1 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Umstadter, D.

S. Banerjee, S. Sepke, R. Shah, A. Valenzuela, A. Maksimchuk, and D. Umstadter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 035004 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valenzuela, A.

S. Banerjee, S. Sepke, R. Shah, A. Valenzuela, A. Maksimchuk, and D. Umstadter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 035004 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watanabe, T.

T. Watanabe, M. Uesaka, J. Sugahara, T. Ueda, K. Yoshii, Y. Shibata, F. Sakai, S. Kondo, M. Kando, H. Kotaki, and K. Nakajima, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 437, 1 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Weber, P. M.

W. E. King, G. H. Campbell, A. Frank, B. Reed, J. F. Schmerge, B. J. Siwick, B. C. Stuart, and P. M. Weber, J. Appl. Phys. 97, 111101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yoshii, K.

T. Watanabe, M. Uesaka, J. Sugahara, T. Ueda, K. Yoshii, Y. Shibata, F. Sakai, S. Kondo, M. Kando, H. Kotaki, and K. Nakajima, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 437, 1 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

W. E. King, G. H. Campbell, A. Frank, B. Reed, J. F. Schmerge, B. J. Siwick, B. C. Stuart, and P. M. Weber, J. Appl. Phys. 97, 111101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Siwick, J. R. Dwyer, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 1643 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A

T. Watanabe, M. Uesaka, J. Sugahara, T. Ueda, K. Yoshii, Y. Shibata, F. Sakai, S. Kondo, M. Kando, H. Kotaki, and K. Nakajima, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 437, 1 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

V. I. Balykin, M. V. Subbotin, and V. S. Letokhov, Opt. Commun. 129, 177 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A

J. R. Dwyer, C. T. Hebeisen, R. Ernstorfer, M. Harb, V. B. Deyirmenjian, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 364, 741 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

S. Banerjee, S. Sepke, R. Shah, A. Valenzuela, A. Maksimchuk, and D. Umstadter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 035004 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. B. Kibble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 16, 1054 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Science

B. J. Siwick, J. R. Dwyer, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, Science 302, 1382 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Optical setup of the experiment. The incoming laser pulse is split into two arms: 90% of the pulse energy is focused to scatter the electron beam, and the remaining 10% is further attenuated, sent through a variable delay line, tripled, and compressed before entering the electron gun. (b) Schematic view of the experiment geometry. When the tripled laser pulse hits the photocathode, it creates an electron pulse that is accelerated by a DC electric field. The electron pulse is then stripped of its outer electrons by a pinhole before it is scattered by the ponderomotive force of the laser pulse. The electrons are detected by a microchannel plate/phosphor detector.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Series of images of the beam on the detector without (upper row) and with (lower row) the stripping pinhole ( 30 μ m ) in place. An image of the undisturbed beam has been subtracted from each of the images to highlight the scattering of electrons due to the ponderomotive force of the laser pulse. The time step between adjacent images is 300 fs .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Signal traces without (crosses) and with (squares) stripping pinhole. The FWHM of the Gaussian fits (dashed curves) are 815 ± 49 fs and 438 ± 22 fs , respectively.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

F ( r , t ) = e 2 λ 2 8 π 2 m e ϵ 0 c 3 I ( r , t ) .
[ X , Y ] = T m e [ F x ( r ( t ) , t ) , F y ( r ( t ) , t ) ] d t .
Y = T m e F y ( x c t , y , z + v t ) d t
S ponderomotive = Y D ( X , Y ) d X d Y = T m e n ( x , y , z ) F y ( x c t , y , z + v t ) d t d x d y d z .
S ponderomotive ( τ ) = N 0 F 0 T m e f y ( y ) n y ( y ) d y × n x ( x ) f t ( x c t + τ ) d x n t ( z v ) f z ( z + v t ) d z d t ,

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