Abstract

Novel Bragg grating waveguide structures have been fabricated in bulk borosilicate glass through a type II photosensitivity mechanism driven by single femtosecond laser pulses. Low-loss single-mode waveguides and narrow-linewidth Bragg gratings were generated simultaneously by forming an array of refractive index voxels in a single laser scan. Laser pulse duration is shown to significantly affect the grating strength and waveguide loss. Bragg wavelengths, defined by the periodicity of laser-modified volumes, were fully controlled by the sample scan speed to provide resonances anywhere in the 12001620nm telecommunication bands. Four linear Bragg filters with distinct resonant wavelengths are presented that define the first demonstration of laser writing of multiple-wavelength and cascaded Bragg grating waveguides in a single process step.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, Opt. Lett. 21, 1729 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. H. Zhang, S. M. Eaton, and P. R. Herman, Opt. Express 14, 4826 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tunnermann, Appl. Phys. A 77, 109 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. H. Nejadmalayeri, P. R. Herman, J. Burghoff, M. Will, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, Opt. Lett. 30, 964 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. G. D. Marshall, M. Ams, and M. J. Withford, Opt. Lett. 31, 2690 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. M. Vengsarkar, J. R. Pedrazzani, J. B. Judkins, P. J. Lemaire, N. S. Bergano, and C. R. Davidson, Opt. Lett. 21, 336 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. E. Wikszak, J. Burghoff, M. Will, S. Nolte, A. Tunnermann, and T. Gabler, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 96 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CThM7.
  10. A. Martinez, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 40, 1170 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. L. Archambault, L. Reekie, and P. S. J. Russell, Electron. Lett. 29, 453 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. Zhang, S. M. Eaton, J. Li, and P. R. Herman, "Type II femtosecond laser writing of Bragg grating waveguides in bulk glass," Electron. Lett. (to be published).
  13. S. M. Eaton, H. Zhang, and P. R. Herman, Opt. Express 13, 4708 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. L. McCaughan and E. J. Murphy, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 131 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. Kashyap, Fiber Bragg Gratings (Academic, 1999).

2006 (2)

2005 (2)

2004 (1)

A. Martinez, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 40, 1170 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tunnermann, Appl. Phys. A 77, 109 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

1993 (2)

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Archambault, L. Reekie, and P. S. J. Russell, Electron. Lett. 29, 453 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

L. McCaughan and E. J. Murphy, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 131 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Albert, J.

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ams, M.

Archambault, J. L.

J. L. Archambault, L. Reekie, and P. S. J. Russell, Electron. Lett. 29, 453 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bennion, I.

A. Martinez, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 40, 1170 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bergano, N. S.

Bilodeau, F.

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Burghoff, J.

A. H. Nejadmalayeri, P. R. Herman, J. Burghoff, M. Will, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, Opt. Lett. 30, 964 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tunnermann, Appl. Phys. A 77, 109 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Wikszak, J. Burghoff, M. Will, S. Nolte, A. Tunnermann, and T. Gabler, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 96 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CThM7.

Davidson, C. R.

Davis, K. M.

Dubov, M.

A. Martinez, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 40, 1170 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Eaton, S. M.

H. Zhang, S. M. Eaton, and P. R. Herman, Opt. Express 14, 4826 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Eaton, H. Zhang, and P. R. Herman, Opt. Express 13, 4708 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, S. M. Eaton, J. Li, and P. R. Herman, "Type II femtosecond laser writing of Bragg grating waveguides in bulk glass," Electron. Lett. (to be published).

Gabler, T.

E. Wikszak, J. Burghoff, M. Will, S. Nolte, A. Tunnermann, and T. Gabler, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 96 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CThM7.

Herman, P. R.

Hill, K. O.

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hirao, K.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, Opt. Lett. 21, 1729 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Inouye, H.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, D. C.

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Judkins, J. B.

Kashyap, R.

R. Kashyap, Fiber Bragg Gratings (Academic, 1999).

Khrushchev, I.

A. Martinez, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 40, 1170 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lemaire, P. J.

Li, J.

H. Zhang, S. M. Eaton, J. Li, and P. R. Herman, "Type II femtosecond laser writing of Bragg grating waveguides in bulk glass," Electron. Lett. (to be published).

Malo, B.

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Marshall, G. D.

Martinez, A.

A. Martinez, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 40, 1170 (2004).
[CrossRef]

McCaughan, L.

L. McCaughan and E. J. Murphy, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 131 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Mitsuyu, T.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Miura, K.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, Opt. Lett. 21, 1729 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murphy, E. J.

L. McCaughan and E. J. Murphy, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 131 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Nejadmalayeri, A. H.

Nolte, S.

A. H. Nejadmalayeri, P. R. Herman, J. Burghoff, M. Will, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, Opt. Lett. 30, 964 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tunnermann, Appl. Phys. A 77, 109 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Wikszak, J. Burghoff, M. Will, S. Nolte, A. Tunnermann, and T. Gabler, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 96 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CThM7.

Pedrazzani, J. R.

Qiu, J.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Reekie, L.

J. L. Archambault, L. Reekie, and P. S. J. Russell, Electron. Lett. 29, 453 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. S. J.

J. L. Archambault, L. Reekie, and P. S. J. Russell, Electron. Lett. 29, 453 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, N.

Tunnermann, A.

A. H. Nejadmalayeri, P. R. Herman, J. Burghoff, M. Will, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, Opt. Lett. 30, 964 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tunnermann, Appl. Phys. A 77, 109 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Wikszak, J. Burghoff, M. Will, S. Nolte, A. Tunnermann, and T. Gabler, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 96 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CThM7.

Vengsarkar, A. M.

Wikszak, E.

E. Wikszak, J. Burghoff, M. Will, S. Nolte, A. Tunnermann, and T. Gabler, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 96 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CThM7.

Will, M.

A. H. Nejadmalayeri, P. R. Herman, J. Burghoff, M. Will, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, Opt. Lett. 30, 964 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tunnermann, Appl. Phys. A 77, 109 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Wikszak, J. Burghoff, M. Will, S. Nolte, A. Tunnermann, and T. Gabler, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 96 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CThM7.

Withford, M. J.

Zhang, H.

H. Zhang, S. M. Eaton, and P. R. Herman, Opt. Express 14, 4826 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Eaton, H. Zhang, and P. R. Herman, Opt. Express 13, 4708 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, S. M. Eaton, J. Li, and P. R. Herman, "Type II femtosecond laser writing of Bragg grating waveguides in bulk glass," Electron. Lett. (to be published).

Appl. Phys. A (1)

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tunnermann, Appl. Phys. A 77, 109 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

A. Martinez, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 40, 1170 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Archambault, L. Reekie, and P. S. J. Russell, Electron. Lett. 29, 453 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

L. McCaughan and E. J. Murphy, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 131 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Other (3)

R. Kashyap, Fiber Bragg Gratings (Academic, 1999).

H. Zhang, S. M. Eaton, J. Li, and P. R. Herman, "Type II femtosecond laser writing of Bragg grating waveguides in bulk glass," Electron. Lett. (to be published).

E. Wikszak, J. Burghoff, M. Will, S. Nolte, A. Tunnermann, and T. Gabler, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 96 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CThM7.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Transverse optical microscope images of BGWs fabricated at (a) 2 and (b) 0.52 mm s scan speeds and (c) the near-field mode profile for the sample in (b).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Reflection (bottom) and transmission (top) spectra recorded for the BGW shown in Fig. 1b.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

BGW Bragg resonance wavelength plotted against sample scan speed. Data are clustered in first (diamonds), second (circles), and third (squares) diffraction orders.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Transmission and (b) reflection spectral responses of a serial BGW device with four different Bragg gratings that together compose a sensor network.

Metrics