Abstract

A pulsed laser diode system operating at 905nm has been developed for the generation of photoacoustic signals in tissue. It was evaluated by measuring the photoacoustic waveforms generated in a blood vessel phantom comprising three dye-filled (μa=1mm1) tubes of diameters 120580μm immersed to a maximum depth of 9mm in a turbid liquid (μs=1mm1). The system was then combined with a cylindrical scanning system to obtain two-dimensional images of a tissue phantom. The signal-to-noise ratio of the detected signals in both cases and the image contrast in the latter suggest that such a system could provide a compact and inexpensive alternative to current excitation sources for superficial imaging applilcations.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. Xu and L. V. Wang, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 041101 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Laufer, C. E. Elwell, D. T. Delpy, and P. C. Beard, Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 4409 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Z. Zhao and R. Myllyla, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 2172 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. G. M. Kolkman, W. Steenbergen, and T. G. van Leeuwen, Lasers Med. Sci. 21, 134 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. T. J. Allen, B. T. Cox, P. C. Beard, in Proc. SPIE 5696, 233 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Xu and L. V. Wang, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 50, 1086 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

M. Xu and L. V. Wang, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 041101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. G. M. Kolkman, W. Steenbergen, and T. G. van Leeuwen, Lasers Med. Sci. 21, 134 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

T. J. Allen, B. T. Cox, P. C. Beard, in Proc. SPIE 5696, 233 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Laufer, C. E. Elwell, D. T. Delpy, and P. C. Beard, Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 4409 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

M. Xu and L. V. Wang, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 50, 1086 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

Z. Zhao and R. Myllyla, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 2172 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Allen, T. J.

T. J. Allen, B. T. Cox, P. C. Beard, in Proc. SPIE 5696, 233 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Beard, P. C.

T. J. Allen, B. T. Cox, P. C. Beard, in Proc. SPIE 5696, 233 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Laufer, C. E. Elwell, D. T. Delpy, and P. C. Beard, Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 4409 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cox, B. T.

T. J. Allen, B. T. Cox, P. C. Beard, in Proc. SPIE 5696, 233 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Delpy, D. T.

J. Laufer, C. E. Elwell, D. T. Delpy, and P. C. Beard, Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 4409 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elwell, C. E.

J. Laufer, C. E. Elwell, D. T. Delpy, and P. C. Beard, Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 4409 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kolkman, R. G. M.

R. G. M. Kolkman, W. Steenbergen, and T. G. van Leeuwen, Lasers Med. Sci. 21, 134 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laufer, J.

J. Laufer, C. E. Elwell, D. T. Delpy, and P. C. Beard, Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 4409 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Myllyla, R.

Z. Zhao and R. Myllyla, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 2172 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Steenbergen, W.

R. G. M. Kolkman, W. Steenbergen, and T. G. van Leeuwen, Lasers Med. Sci. 21, 134 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Leeuwen, T. G.

R. G. M. Kolkman, W. Steenbergen, and T. G. van Leeuwen, Lasers Med. Sci. 21, 134 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L. V.

M. Xu and L. V. Wang, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 041101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Xu and L. V. Wang, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 50, 1086 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, M.

M. Xu and L. V. Wang, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 041101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Xu and L. V. Wang, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 50, 1086 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, Z.

Z. Zhao and R. Myllyla, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 2172 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.

M. Xu and L. V. Wang, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 50, 1086 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasers Med. Sci.

R. G. M. Kolkman, W. Steenbergen, and T. G. van Leeuwen, Lasers Med. Sci. 21, 134 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meas. Sci. Technol.

Z. Zhao and R. Myllyla, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 2172 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Med. Biol.

J. Laufer, C. E. Elwell, D. T. Delpy, and P. C. Beard, Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 4409 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE

T. J. Allen, B. T. Cox, P. C. Beard, in Proc. SPIE 5696, 233 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

M. Xu and L. V. Wang, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 041101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Laser diode photoacoustic excitation system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Phantom composed of three dye-filled ( μ a = 1 mm 1 ) capillary tubes (A, Ø 120 μ m ; B, Ø 300 μ m ; C, Ø 580 μ m ) immersed in intralipid ( μ s = 1 mm 1 ) .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photoacoustic signals generated in the phantom shown in Fig. 1 for laser pulse durations t p = 65 ns and t p = 500 ns .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Cylindrical scanning system.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Photograph of the phantom used in Fig. 4 before adding the top layer of the scattering medium. (b) Reconstructed PA image obtained using the Q-switched Nd : YAG laser, t p = 7 ns . (c) and (d) Images obtained using the laser diode system with t p = 65 ns and t p = 500 ns , respectively.

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