Abstract

We experimentally demonstrated remote sensing of the constituents of microparticles in air by combining laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and lidar, using femtosecond terawatt laser pulses. Laser pulses of 70fs duration and 130mJ energy generated filaments when focused at a focal length of 20m and the pulses irradiated artificial saltwater aerosols in air at a 10Hz pulse repetition rate. Na fluorescence was observed remotely at a distance of 16m using a 318mm diameter Newtonian telescope, a spectrometer, and an intensified CCD camera. These results show the possibility of remote measurement of the constituents of atmospheric particles, such as aerosols, clouds, and toxic materials, by LIBS–lidar using femtosecond terawatt laser pulses.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2006 (1)

2004 (3)

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3977 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, S. Frey, E. Salmon, and J.-P. Wolf, Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 78, 535 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J. P. Wolf, Phys. Rev. E 69, 36607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, Science 301, 61 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

S. Borrmann and J. Curtius, Nature 418, 826 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Favre, V. Boutou, S. C. Hill, W. Zimmer, M. Krenz, H. Lambrecht, J. Yu, R. K. Chang, L. Woeste, and J.-P. Wolf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 35002 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. Noack and A. Vogel, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1156 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (2)

P. K. Kennedy, S. A. Boppart, D. X. Hammer, B. A. Rockwell, G. D. Noojin, and W. P. Roach, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 2250 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Braun, G. Korn, X. Liu, D. Du, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, Opt. Lett. 20, 73 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ackermann, R.

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3977 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Andre, Y.-B.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, Science 301, 61 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boppart, S. A.

P. K. Kennedy, S. A. Boppart, D. X. Hammer, B. A. Rockwell, G. D. Noojin, and W. P. Roach, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 2250 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Borrmann, S.

S. Borrmann and J. Curtius, Nature 418, 826 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bourayou, R.

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J. P. Wolf, Phys. Rev. E 69, 36607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, Science 301, 61 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boutou, V.

C. Favre, V. Boutou, S. C. Hill, W. Zimmer, M. Krenz, H. Lambrecht, J. Yu, R. K. Chang, L. Woeste, and J.-P. Wolf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 35002 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Braun, A.

Chang, R. K.

C. Favre, V. Boutou, S. C. Hill, W. Zimmer, M. Krenz, H. Lambrecht, J. Yu, R. K. Chang, L. Woeste, and J.-P. Wolf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 35002 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chin, S. L.

Curley, P. F.

Curtius, J.

S. Borrmann and J. Curtius, Nature 418, 826 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Du, D.

Eislöffel, J.

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J. P. Wolf, Phys. Rev. E 69, 36607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Favre, C.

C. Favre, V. Boutou, S. C. Hill, W. Zimmer, M. Krenz, H. Lambrecht, J. Yu, R. K. Chang, L. Woeste, and J.-P. Wolf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 35002 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Franco, M. A.

Frey, S.

G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, S. Frey, E. Salmon, and J.-P. Wolf, Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 78, 535 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, Science 301, 61 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grillon, G.

Hammer, D. X.

P. K. Kennedy, S. A. Boppart, D. X. Hammer, B. A. Rockwell, G. D. Noojin, and W. P. Roach, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 2250 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hatzes, A. P.

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J. P. Wolf, Phys. Rev. E 69, 36607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hill, S. C.

C. Favre, V. Boutou, S. C. Hill, W. Zimmer, M. Krenz, H. Lambrecht, J. Yu, R. K. Chang, L. Woeste, and J.-P. Wolf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 35002 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kasparian, J.

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3977 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J. P. Wolf, Phys. Rev. E 69, 36607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, S. Frey, E. Salmon, and J.-P. Wolf, Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 78, 535 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, Science 301, 61 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kennedy, P. K.

P. K. Kennedy, S. A. Boppart, D. X. Hammer, B. A. Rockwell, G. D. Noojin, and W. P. Roach, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 2250 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Korn, G.

Krenz, M.

C. Favre, V. Boutou, S. C. Hill, W. Zimmer, M. Krenz, H. Lambrecht, J. Yu, R. K. Chang, L. Woeste, and J.-P. Wolf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 35002 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lambrecht, H.

C. Favre, V. Boutou, S. C. Hill, W. Zimmer, M. Krenz, H. Lambrecht, J. Yu, R. K. Chang, L. Woeste, and J.-P. Wolf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 35002 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Laux, U.

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J. P. Wolf, Phys. Rev. E 69, 36607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W.

Liu, X.

Méjean, G.

G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, S. Frey, E. Salmon, and J.-P. Wolf, Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 78, 535 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J. P. Wolf, Phys. Rev. E 69, 36607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3977 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, Science 301, 61 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mourou, G.

Mysyrowicz, A.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, Science 301, 61 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. T. J. Nibbering, P. F. Curley, G. Grillon, B. S. Prade, M. A. Franco, F. Salin, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Lett. 21, 62 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nibbering, E. T. J.

Noack, J.

J. Noack and A. Vogel, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1156 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Noojin, G. D.

P. K. Kennedy, S. A. Boppart, D. X. Hammer, B. A. Rockwell, G. D. Noojin, and W. P. Roach, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 2250 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Prade, B. S.

Roach, W. P.

P. K. Kennedy, S. A. Boppart, D. X. Hammer, B. A. Rockwell, G. D. Noojin, and W. P. Roach, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 2250 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rockwell, B. A.

P. K. Kennedy, S. A. Boppart, D. X. Hammer, B. A. Rockwell, G. D. Noojin, and W. P. Roach, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 2250 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez, M.

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J. P. Wolf, Phys. Rev. E 69, 36607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, Science 301, 61 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rohwetter, P.

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3977 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Salin, F.

Salmon, E.

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J. P. Wolf, Phys. Rev. E 69, 36607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3977 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, S. Frey, E. Salmon, and J.-P. Wolf, Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 78, 535 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, Science 301, 61 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sauerbrey, R.

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J. P. Wolf, Phys. Rev. E 69, 36607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, Science 301, 61 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scholz, A.

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J. P. Wolf, Phys. Rev. E 69, 36607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Squier, J.

Stecklum, B.

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J. P. Wolf, Phys. Rev. E 69, 36607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stelmaszczyk, K.

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3977 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Theopold, F. A.

F. A. Theopold, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, in Lidar, C.Weitkamp, ed. (Springer, 2005), pp. 399-443.
[CrossRef]

Vogel, A.

J. Noack and A. Vogel, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1156 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wille, H.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, Science 301, 61 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Woeste, L.

C. Favre, V. Boutou, S. C. Hill, W. Zimmer, M. Krenz, H. Lambrecht, J. Yu, R. K. Chang, L. Woeste, and J.-P. Wolf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 35002 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, J. P.

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J. P. Wolf, Phys. Rev. E 69, 36607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, J.-P.

G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, S. Frey, E. Salmon, and J.-P. Wolf, Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 78, 535 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3977 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, Science 301, 61 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Favre, V. Boutou, S. C. Hill, W. Zimmer, M. Krenz, H. Lambrecht, J. Yu, R. K. Chang, L. Woeste, and J.-P. Wolf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 35002 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. A. Theopold, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, in Lidar, C.Weitkamp, ed. (Springer, 2005), pp. 399-443.
[CrossRef]

Wöste, L.

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J. P. Wolf, Phys. Rev. E 69, 36607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3977 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, Science 301, 61 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. A. Theopold, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, in Lidar, C.Weitkamp, ed. (Springer, 2005), pp. 399-443.
[CrossRef]

Xu, H. L.

Yu, J.

G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, S. Frey, E. Salmon, and J.-P. Wolf, Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 78, 535 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3977 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J. P. Wolf, Phys. Rev. E 69, 36607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, Science 301, 61 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Favre, V. Boutou, S. C. Hill, W. Zimmer, M. Krenz, H. Lambrecht, J. Yu, R. K. Chang, L. Woeste, and J.-P. Wolf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 35002 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zimmer, W.

C. Favre, V. Boutou, S. C. Hill, W. Zimmer, M. Krenz, H. Lambrecht, J. Yu, R. K. Chang, L. Woeste, and J.-P. Wolf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 35002 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. (1)

G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, S. Frey, E. Salmon, and J.-P. Wolf, Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 78, 535 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3977 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

J. Noack and A. Vogel, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1156 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Kennedy, S. A. Boppart, D. X. Hammer, B. A. Rockwell, G. D. Noojin, and W. P. Roach, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 2250 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

S. Borrmann and J. Curtius, Nature 418, 826 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. E (1)

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J. P. Wolf, Phys. Rev. E 69, 36607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

C. Favre, V. Boutou, S. C. Hill, W. Zimmer, M. Krenz, H. Lambrecht, J. Yu, R. K. Chang, L. Woeste, and J.-P. Wolf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 35002 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, Science 301, 61 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

F. A. Theopold, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, in Lidar, C.Weitkamp, ed. (Springer, 2005), pp. 399-443.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Experimental setup for in situ and lidar measurements of Na fluorescence from artificial saltwater aerosols using femtosecond laser pulses. (b) Laser beam propagating around the entrance of tube. Inset, laser beam profile showing multiple filaments at the entrance of the tube.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectra of Na fluorescence from saltwater aerosols irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses with delay times of 20, 40, and 120 ns from laser irradiation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectra of Na fluorescence from saltwater aerosols irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses measured by lidar, along with emission from a spirit lamp containing salt.

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