Abstract

Fabrication and laser operation of proton-implanted Ti:sapphire buried channel waveguides is reported for the first time to our knowledge. Without any postimplantation annealing of the structures, continuous laser operation near 780nm was demonstrated at room temperature at an absorbed pump power threshold of 230mW. Single-transverse-mode laser emission was observed with measured beam propagation factors Mx2 and My2 of 1.5 and 1.2, respectively. An output power of 12.4mW for 1W pump power was obtained with an output coupler of 4.6% transmission at the signal wavelength. Higher output powers were measured in waveguides with larger cross sections exhibiting multimode laser emission.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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M. Domenech, G. V. Vázquez, E. Flores-Romero, E. Cantelar, and G. Lifante, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Grivas, D. P. Shepherd, T. C. May-Smith, R. W. Eason, and M. Pollnau, Opt. Express 13, 210 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

L. M. B. Hickey, V. Apostolopoulos, R. W. Eason, J. S. Wilkinson, and A. A. Anderson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1452 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Domenech, G. V. Vázquez, E. Márquez, R. Rangel-Rojo, J. Rickards, and G. Trejo-Luna, Opt. Express 10, 2264 (2004).

L. Laversenne, P. Hoffmann, M. Pollnau, P. Moretti, and J. Mugnier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5167 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

P. Moretti, M. F. Joubert, S. Tascu, B. Jacquier, M. Kaczkan, M. Malinowskii, and J. Samecki, Opt. Mater. 24, 315 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Grivas, D. P. Shepherd, T. C. May-Smith, R. W. Eason, M. Pollnau, A. Crunteanu, and M. Jelinek, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 501 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1997

1995

1989

W. A. Clarkson and D. C. Hanna, J. Mod. Opt. 36, 483 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

A. Sanchez, A. J. Strauss, R. L. Aggarwal, and R. E. Fahey, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 995 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. Moncorgé, G. Boulon, D. Vivien, A. M. Lejus, R. Collongues, V. Djevahirdjian, and R. Cagnard, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1049 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986

1977

K. H. Lee and J. H. Crawford, Jr., Phys. Rev. B 15, 4065 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Aggarwal, R. L.

A. Sanchez, A. J. Strauss, R. L. Aggarwal, and R. E. Fahey, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 995 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Albers, P.

Anderson, A. A.

Apostolopoulos, V.

Boulon, G.

R. Moncorgé, G. Boulon, D. Vivien, A. M. Lejus, R. Collongues, V. Djevahirdjian, and R. Cagnard, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1049 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Brülisauer, S.

Cagnard, R.

R. Moncorgé, G. Boulon, D. Vivien, A. M. Lejus, R. Collongues, V. Djevahirdjian, and R. Cagnard, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1049 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Cantelar, E.

M. Domenech, G. V. Vázquez, E. Flores-Romero, E. Cantelar, and G. Lifante, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Clarkson, W. A.

W. A. Clarkson and D. C. Hanna, J. Mod. Opt. 36, 483 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Collongues, R.

R. Moncorgé, G. Boulon, D. Vivien, A. M. Lejus, R. Collongues, V. Djevahirdjian, and R. Cagnard, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1049 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, J. H.

K. H. Lee and J. H. Crawford, Jr., Phys. Rev. B 15, 4065 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Crunteanu, A.

C. Grivas, D. P. Shepherd, T. C. May-Smith, R. W. Eason, M. Pollnau, A. Crunteanu, and M. Jelinek, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 501 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Djevahirdjian, V.

R. Moncorgé, G. Boulon, D. Vivien, A. M. Lejus, R. Collongues, V. Djevahirdjian, and R. Cagnard, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1049 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Domenech, M.

M. Domenech, G. V. Vázquez, E. Flores-Romero, E. Cantelar, and G. Lifante, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Domenech, G. V. Vázquez, E. Márquez, R. Rangel-Rojo, J. Rickards, and G. Trejo-Luna, Opt. Express 10, 2264 (2004).

Eason, R. W.

Fahey, R. E.

A. Sanchez, A. J. Strauss, R. L. Aggarwal, and R. E. Fahey, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 995 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Flores-Romero, E.

M. Domenech, G. V. Vázquez, E. Flores-Romero, E. Cantelar, and G. Lifante, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fluck, D.

Gill, D. S.

Grivas, C.

Günter, P.

Hanna, D. C.

W. A. Clarkson and D. C. Hanna, J. Mod. Opt. 36, 483 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hickey, L. M. B.

Hoffmann, P.

L. Laversenne, P. Hoffmann, M. Pollnau, P. Moretti, and J. Mugnier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5167 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huber, G.

Jacquier, B.

P. Moretti, M. F. Joubert, S. Tascu, B. Jacquier, M. Kaczkan, M. Malinowskii, and J. Samecki, Opt. Mater. 24, 315 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jelinek, M.

C. Grivas, D. P. Shepherd, T. C. May-Smith, R. W. Eason, M. Pollnau, A. Crunteanu, and M. Jelinek, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 501 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Anderson, R. W. Eason, L. M. B. Hickey, M. Jelinek, C. Grivas, D. S. Gill, and N. A. Vainos, Opt. Lett. 22, 1556 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Joubert, M. F.

P. Moretti, M. F. Joubert, S. Tascu, B. Jacquier, M. Kaczkan, M. Malinowskii, and J. Samecki, Opt. Mater. 24, 315 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kaczkan, M.

P. Moretti, M. F. Joubert, S. Tascu, B. Jacquier, M. Kaczkan, M. Malinowskii, and J. Samecki, Opt. Mater. 24, 315 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Laversenne, L.

L. Laversenne, P. Hoffmann, M. Pollnau, P. Moretti, and J. Mugnier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5167 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. H.

K. H. Lee and J. H. Crawford, Jr., Phys. Rev. B 15, 4065 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Lejus, A. M.

R. Moncorgé, G. Boulon, D. Vivien, A. M. Lejus, R. Collongues, V. Djevahirdjian, and R. Cagnard, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1049 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Lifante, G.

M. Domenech, G. V. Vázquez, E. Flores-Romero, E. Cantelar, and G. Lifante, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Malinowskii, M.

P. Moretti, M. F. Joubert, S. Tascu, B. Jacquier, M. Kaczkan, M. Malinowskii, and J. Samecki, Opt. Mater. 24, 315 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Márquez, E.

M. Domenech, G. V. Vázquez, E. Márquez, R. Rangel-Rojo, J. Rickards, and G. Trejo-Luna, Opt. Express 10, 2264 (2004).

May-Smith, T. C.

C. Grivas, D. P. Shepherd, T. C. May-Smith, R. W. Eason, and M. Pollnau, Opt. Express 13, 210 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Grivas, D. P. Shepherd, T. C. May-Smith, R. W. Eason, M. Pollnau, A. Crunteanu, and M. Jelinek, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 501 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Moncorgé, R.

R. Moncorgé, G. Boulon, D. Vivien, A. M. Lejus, R. Collongues, V. Djevahirdjian, and R. Cagnard, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1049 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Moretti, P.

L. Laversenne, P. Hoffmann, M. Pollnau, P. Moretti, and J. Mugnier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5167 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Moretti, M. F. Joubert, S. Tascu, B. Jacquier, M. Kaczkan, M. Malinowskii, and J. Samecki, Opt. Mater. 24, 315 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Moulton, P. F.

Mugnier, J.

L. Laversenne, P. Hoffmann, M. Pollnau, P. Moretti, and J. Mugnier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5167 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pliska, T.

Pollnau, M.

C. Grivas, D. P. Shepherd, T. C. May-Smith, R. W. Eason, and M. Pollnau, Opt. Express 13, 210 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Laversenne, P. Hoffmann, M. Pollnau, P. Moretti, and J. Mugnier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5167 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Grivas, D. P. Shepherd, T. C. May-Smith, R. W. Eason, M. Pollnau, A. Crunteanu, and M. Jelinek, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 501 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rangel-Rojo, R.

M. Domenech, G. V. Vázquez, E. Márquez, R. Rangel-Rojo, J. Rickards, and G. Trejo-Luna, Opt. Express 10, 2264 (2004).

Rickards, J.

M. Domenech, G. V. Vázquez, E. Márquez, R. Rangel-Rojo, J. Rickards, and G. Trejo-Luna, Opt. Express 10, 2264 (2004).

Samecki, J.

P. Moretti, M. F. Joubert, S. Tascu, B. Jacquier, M. Kaczkan, M. Malinowskii, and J. Samecki, Opt. Mater. 24, 315 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sanchez, A.

A. Sanchez, A. J. Strauss, R. L. Aggarwal, and R. E. Fahey, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 995 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Shepherd, D. P.

C. Grivas, D. P. Shepherd, T. C. May-Smith, R. W. Eason, and M. Pollnau, Opt. Express 13, 210 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Grivas, D. P. Shepherd, T. C. May-Smith, R. W. Eason, M. Pollnau, A. Crunteanu, and M. Jelinek, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 501 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Solcia, C.

Stark, E.

Strauss, A. J.

A. Sanchez, A. J. Strauss, R. L. Aggarwal, and R. E. Fahey, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 995 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Tascu, S.

P. Moretti, M. F. Joubert, S. Tascu, B. Jacquier, M. Kaczkan, M. Malinowskii, and J. Samecki, Opt. Mater. 24, 315 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Trejo-Luna, G.

M. Domenech, G. V. Vázquez, E. Márquez, R. Rangel-Rojo, J. Rickards, and G. Trejo-Luna, Opt. Express 10, 2264 (2004).

Vainos, N. A.

Vázquez, G. V.

M. Domenech, G. V. Vázquez, E. Flores-Romero, E. Cantelar, and G. Lifante, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Domenech, G. V. Vázquez, E. Márquez, R. Rangel-Rojo, J. Rickards, and G. Trejo-Luna, Opt. Express 10, 2264 (2004).

Vivien, D.

R. Moncorgé, G. Boulon, D. Vivien, A. M. Lejus, R. Collongues, V. Djevahirdjian, and R. Cagnard, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1049 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Wilkinson, J. S.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

L. Laversenne, P. Hoffmann, M. Pollnau, P. Moretti, and J. Mugnier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5167 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Domenech, G. V. Vázquez, E. Flores-Romero, E. Cantelar, and G. Lifante, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

C. Grivas, D. P. Shepherd, T. C. May-Smith, R. W. Eason, M. Pollnau, A. Crunteanu, and M. Jelinek, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 501 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Sanchez, A. J. Strauss, R. L. Aggarwal, and R. E. Fahey, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 995 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. Moncorgé, G. Boulon, D. Vivien, A. M. Lejus, R. Collongues, V. Djevahirdjian, and R. Cagnard, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1049 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt.

W. A. Clarkson and D. C. Hanna, J. Mod. Opt. 36, 483 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Express

C. Grivas, D. P. Shepherd, T. C. May-Smith, R. W. Eason, and M. Pollnau, Opt. Express 13, 210 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Domenech, G. V. Vázquez, E. Márquez, R. Rangel-Rojo, J. Rickards, and G. Trejo-Luna, Opt. Express 10, 2264 (2004).

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Mater.

P. Moretti, M. F. Joubert, S. Tascu, B. Jacquier, M. Kaczkan, M. Malinowskii, and J. Samecki, Opt. Mater. 24, 315 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

K. H. Lee and J. H. Crawford, Jr., Phys. Rev. B 15, 4065 (1977).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic (not to scale) of the implantation design of a waveguide with a cross section of 10 μ m × 5 μ m . Dark stripes represent the optical barriers. Their distance from the top surface of the sample is also indicated.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Laser emission spectrum and mode intensity profile (inset) from a Ti:sapphire buried channel waveguide with 5 μ m height and 10 μ m width. Individual lasing spikes represent etalon effects.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Output power characteristics from two buried channel waveguides with 5 μ m height and widths of 15 and 10 μ m as a function of the absorbed pump power.

Equations (1)

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η = ( λ p λ l ) ( ln ( R 2 ) ln ( R 1 R 2 ) + 2 l α L ) η q ( W l x W l y ( 2 W p x 2 + W l x 2 ) 1 2 ( 2 W p y 2 + W l y 2 ) 1 2 ( W p x 2 + W l x 2 ) ( W p y 2 + W l y 2 ) ) ,

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