Abstract

We describe a system that efficiently provides radially or azimuthally polarized radiation from a randomly polarized source. It is constructed from two conical reflectors and a cylindrical sheet of polarizing film. Envisaged applications include a microscope illuminator for high-resolution surface plasmon resonance microscopy, illumination for high-resolution microlithography, and efficient coupling of a laser source to hollow optical fibers. The angular coherence function of light polarized by the device was measured to evaluate its usefulness for these applications.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2005 (2)

I. J. Cooper, M. Roy, and C. J. R. Sheppard, Opt. Express 13, 1066-71 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Flagello, B. Geh, S. Hansen, and M. Totzeck, J. Microlithogr., Microfabr., Microsyst. 4, 031104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

2000 (1)

J. M. Brockman, B. P. Nelson, and R. M. Corn, Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 51, 4163 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

K.-F. Giebel, C. Bechinger, S. Herminghaus, M. Riedel, P. Leiderer, U. Weiland, and M. Bastmeyer, Biophys. J. 76, 509516 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

J. Lehner, U. Leonhardt, and H. Paul, Phys. Rev. A 53, 2727 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Stalder and M. Schadt, Opt. Lett. 21, 1948 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

E. G. Churin, J. Hossfeld, and T. Tschudi, Opt. Commun. 99, 13 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1984 (1)

R. M. Gilgenbach and L. D. Horton, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 55, 503 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

1972 (1)

D. Pohl, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 266 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Bastmeyer, M.

K.-F. Giebel, C. Bechinger, S. Herminghaus, M. Riedel, P. Leiderer, U. Weiland, and M. Bastmeyer, Biophys. J. 76, 509516 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bechinger, C.

K.-F. Giebel, C. Bechinger, S. Herminghaus, M. Riedel, P. Leiderer, U. Weiland, and M. Bastmeyer, Biophys. J. 76, 509516 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bozman, Z.

Brockman, J. M.

J. M. Brockman, B. P. Nelson, and R. M. Corn, Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 51, 4163 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Churin, E. G.

E. G. Churin, J. Hossfeld, and T. Tschudi, Opt. Commun. 99, 13 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, I. J.

I. J. Cooper, M. Roy, and C. J. R. Sheppard, Opt. Express 13, 1066-71 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corn, R. M.

J. M. Brockman, B. P. Nelson, and R. M. Corn, Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 51, 4163 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dogariu, A.

Dorn, R.

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ellis, J.

Engeness, T.

Fink, D.

Fink, Y.

Flagello, D.

D. Flagello, B. Geh, S. Hansen, and M. Totzeck, J. Microlithogr., Microfabr., Microsyst. 4, 031104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ford, D. H.

Geh, B.

D. Flagello, B. Geh, S. Hansen, and M. Totzeck, J. Microlithogr., Microfabr., Microsyst. 4, 031104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Giebel, K.-F.

K.-F. Giebel, C. Bechinger, S. Herminghaus, M. Riedel, P. Leiderer, U. Weiland, and M. Bastmeyer, Biophys. J. 76, 509516 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gilgenbach, R. M.

R. M. Gilgenbach and L. D. Horton, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 55, 503 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, S.

D. Flagello, B. Geh, S. Hansen, and M. Totzeck, J. Microlithogr., Microfabr., Microsyst. 4, 031104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hasman, E.

Herminghaus, S.

K.-F. Giebel, C. Bechinger, S. Herminghaus, M. Riedel, P. Leiderer, U. Weiland, and M. Bastmeyer, Biophys. J. 76, 509516 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Horton, L. D.

R. M. Gilgenbach and L. D. Horton, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 55, 503 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Hossfeld, J.

E. G. Churin, J. Hossfeld, and T. Tschudi, Opt. Commun. 99, 13 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ibanescu, M.

Jacobs, S.

Joannopoulos, J.

Johnson, S.

Kimura, W. D.

Kleiner, V.

Lehner, J.

J. Lehner, U. Leonhardt, and H. Paul, Phys. Rev. A 53, 2727 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leiderer, P.

K.-F. Giebel, C. Bechinger, S. Herminghaus, M. Riedel, P. Leiderer, U. Weiland, and M. Bastmeyer, Biophys. J. 76, 509516 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Leonhardt, U.

J. Lehner, U. Leonhardt, and H. Paul, Phys. Rev. A 53, 2727 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leuchs, G.

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nelson, B. P.

J. M. Brockman, B. P. Nelson, and R. M. Corn, Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 51, 4163 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Paul, H.

J. Lehner, U. Leonhardt, and H. Paul, Phys. Rev. A 53, 2727 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pohl, D.

D. Pohl, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 266 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Quabis, S.

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Riedel, M.

K.-F. Giebel, C. Bechinger, S. Herminghaus, M. Riedel, P. Leiderer, U. Weiland, and M. Bastmeyer, Biophys. J. 76, 509516 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Roy, M.

I. J. Cooper, M. Roy, and C. J. R. Sheppard, Opt. Express 13, 1066-71 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schadt, M.

Sheppard, C. J. R.

I. J. Cooper, M. Roy, and C. J. R. Sheppard, Opt. Express 13, 1066-71 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skorobogatiy, M.

Soljacic, M.

Stalder, M.

Tidwell, S. C.

Totzeck, M.

D. Flagello, B. Geh, S. Hansen, and M. Totzeck, J. Microlithogr., Microfabr., Microsyst. 4, 031104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tschudi, T.

E. G. Churin, J. Hossfeld, and T. Tschudi, Opt. Commun. 99, 13 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Weiland, U.

K.-F. Giebel, C. Bechinger, S. Herminghaus, M. Riedel, P. Leiderer, U. Weiland, and M. Bastmeyer, Biophys. J. 76, 509516 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Weisberg, O.

Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. (1)

J. M. Brockman, B. P. Nelson, and R. M. Corn, Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 51, 4163 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. Pohl, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 266 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J. (1)

K.-F. Giebel, C. Bechinger, S. Herminghaus, M. Riedel, P. Leiderer, U. Weiland, and M. Bastmeyer, Biophys. J. 76, 509516 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Microlithogr., Microfabr., Microsyst. (1)

D. Flagello, B. Geh, S. Hansen, and M. Totzeck, J. Microlithogr., Microfabr., Microsyst. 4, 031104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

E. G. Churin, J. Hossfeld, and T. Tschudi, Opt. Commun. 99, 13 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

J. Lehner, U. Leonhardt, and H. Paul, Phys. Rev. A 53, 2727 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

R. M. Gilgenbach and L. D. Horton, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 55, 503 (1984).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Radial polarizer that uses two conical reflectors. For the polarization direction of the sheet polarizer shown, parallel to the cylinder axis, the output annular beam is radially polarized. If it is normal to the axis, the output beam is azimuthally polarized. Intermediate situations can also be considered.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Annular beam profile a, before and b, after a linearly polarizing analyzer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Method of spatially filtering the output light when the source is collimated.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Microscope illuminator to provide conical radially polarized illumination in an incident illumination microscope, where the object plane is reflecting. The objective lens doubles as condenser, and a nonpolarizing beam splitter is added.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Two confocal paraboloidal surfaces create a stigmatic arrangement, which can be used as part of an imaging system.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Modulus of the angular coherence function, γ ( ψ ) , i.e., the correlation between fields at angular positions separated by ψ. The theoretical value γ ( ψ ) = cos ( ψ ) is shown.

Equations (4)

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E r n = a n cos ( θ ϕ n ) exp ( i ω n t ) .
γ ( ψ ) E r ( θ ) E r * ( θ ψ ) t E r ( θ ) E r * ( θ ) t ,
γ ( ψ ) n = 1 N m = 1 N a n a m cos ( θ ϕ n ) cos ( θ ϕ m ψ ) exp [ i ( ω n ω m ) t ] t n = 1 N m = 1 N a n a m cos ( θ ϕ n ) cos ( θ ϕ m ) exp [ i ( ω n ω m ) t ] t = n = 1 N a n 2 [ cos ( 2 θ 2 ϕ n ψ ) + cos ψ ] n = 1 N a n 2 [ cos ( 2 θ 2 ϕ n ) + 1 ] .
γ ( ψ ) = cos ψ .

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