Abstract

The temporal variability of the telluric sodium layer is investigated by analyzing 28 nights of data obtained with the Colorado State University LIDAR experiment. The mean height power spectrum of the sodium layer was found to be well fitted by a power law over the observed range of frequencies, 10μHz to 4mHz. The best-fitting power law was found be be 10βνα, with α=1.79±0.02 and β=1.12±0.40. Applications to wavefront sensing require knowledge of the behavior of the sodium layer at kilohertz frequencies. Direct measurements at these frequencies do not exist. Extrapolation from low-frequency behavior to high frequencies suggests that this variability may be a significant source of error for laser guide star adaptive optics in large-aperture telescopes.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. M. Beckers, Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 31, 13 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. O'Sullivan, R. M. Redfern, N. Ageorges, H.-C. Holstenberg, W. Hackenberg, T. Ott, S. Rabien, R. Davies, and A. Eckart, Exp. Astron. 10, 147 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. Herriot, P. Hickson, B. E. Ellerbroek, and C. Y. She, "Focus errors from tracking sodium layer altitude variations with laser guide star adaptive optics for the Thirty-Meter Telescope," in Proc. SPIE 6272 (to be published).
  4. C. Y. She, T. Li, R. C. Collins, T. Yuan, B. P. Williams, T. D. Kawahara, J. D. Vance, P. Acott, D. A. Krueger, H.-L. Liu, and M. E. Hagan, Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L24111 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (1)

C. Y. She, T. Li, R. C. Collins, T. Yuan, B. P. Williams, T. D. Kawahara, J. D. Vance, P. Acott, D. A. Krueger, H.-L. Liu, and M. E. Hagan, Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L24111 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

C. O'Sullivan, R. M. Redfern, N. Ageorges, H.-C. Holstenberg, W. Hackenberg, T. Ott, S. Rabien, R. Davies, and A. Eckart, Exp. Astron. 10, 147 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

J. M. Beckers, Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 31, 13 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Acott, P.

C. Y. She, T. Li, R. C. Collins, T. Yuan, B. P. Williams, T. D. Kawahara, J. D. Vance, P. Acott, D. A. Krueger, H.-L. Liu, and M. E. Hagan, Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L24111 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ageorges, N.

C. O'Sullivan, R. M. Redfern, N. Ageorges, H.-C. Holstenberg, W. Hackenberg, T. Ott, S. Rabien, R. Davies, and A. Eckart, Exp. Astron. 10, 147 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Beckers, J. M.

J. M. Beckers, Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 31, 13 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Collins, R. C.

C. Y. She, T. Li, R. C. Collins, T. Yuan, B. P. Williams, T. D. Kawahara, J. D. Vance, P. Acott, D. A. Krueger, H.-L. Liu, and M. E. Hagan, Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L24111 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Davies, R.

C. O'Sullivan, R. M. Redfern, N. Ageorges, H.-C. Holstenberg, W. Hackenberg, T. Ott, S. Rabien, R. Davies, and A. Eckart, Exp. Astron. 10, 147 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Eckart, A.

C. O'Sullivan, R. M. Redfern, N. Ageorges, H.-C. Holstenberg, W. Hackenberg, T. Ott, S. Rabien, R. Davies, and A. Eckart, Exp. Astron. 10, 147 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ellerbroek, B. E.

G. Herriot, P. Hickson, B. E. Ellerbroek, and C. Y. She, "Focus errors from tracking sodium layer altitude variations with laser guide star adaptive optics for the Thirty-Meter Telescope," in Proc. SPIE 6272 (to be published).

Hackenberg, W.

C. O'Sullivan, R. M. Redfern, N. Ageorges, H.-C. Holstenberg, W. Hackenberg, T. Ott, S. Rabien, R. Davies, and A. Eckart, Exp. Astron. 10, 147 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hagan, M. E.

C. Y. She, T. Li, R. C. Collins, T. Yuan, B. P. Williams, T. D. Kawahara, J. D. Vance, P. Acott, D. A. Krueger, H.-L. Liu, and M. E. Hagan, Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L24111 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Herriot, G.

G. Herriot, P. Hickson, B. E. Ellerbroek, and C. Y. She, "Focus errors from tracking sodium layer altitude variations with laser guide star adaptive optics for the Thirty-Meter Telescope," in Proc. SPIE 6272 (to be published).

Hickson, P.

G. Herriot, P. Hickson, B. E. Ellerbroek, and C. Y. She, "Focus errors from tracking sodium layer altitude variations with laser guide star adaptive optics for the Thirty-Meter Telescope," in Proc. SPIE 6272 (to be published).

Holstenberg, H.-C.

C. O'Sullivan, R. M. Redfern, N. Ageorges, H.-C. Holstenberg, W. Hackenberg, T. Ott, S. Rabien, R. Davies, and A. Eckart, Exp. Astron. 10, 147 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kawahara, T. D.

C. Y. She, T. Li, R. C. Collins, T. Yuan, B. P. Williams, T. D. Kawahara, J. D. Vance, P. Acott, D. A. Krueger, H.-L. Liu, and M. E. Hagan, Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L24111 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Krueger, D. A.

C. Y. She, T. Li, R. C. Collins, T. Yuan, B. P. Williams, T. D. Kawahara, J. D. Vance, P. Acott, D. A. Krueger, H.-L. Liu, and M. E. Hagan, Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L24111 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, T.

C. Y. She, T. Li, R. C. Collins, T. Yuan, B. P. Williams, T. D. Kawahara, J. D. Vance, P. Acott, D. A. Krueger, H.-L. Liu, and M. E. Hagan, Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L24111 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.-L.

C. Y. She, T. Li, R. C. Collins, T. Yuan, B. P. Williams, T. D. Kawahara, J. D. Vance, P. Acott, D. A. Krueger, H.-L. Liu, and M. E. Hagan, Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L24111 (2004).
[CrossRef]

O'Sullivan, C.

C. O'Sullivan, R. M. Redfern, N. Ageorges, H.-C. Holstenberg, W. Hackenberg, T. Ott, S. Rabien, R. Davies, and A. Eckart, Exp. Astron. 10, 147 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ott, T.

C. O'Sullivan, R. M. Redfern, N. Ageorges, H.-C. Holstenberg, W. Hackenberg, T. Ott, S. Rabien, R. Davies, and A. Eckart, Exp. Astron. 10, 147 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rabien, S.

C. O'Sullivan, R. M. Redfern, N. Ageorges, H.-C. Holstenberg, W. Hackenberg, T. Ott, S. Rabien, R. Davies, and A. Eckart, Exp. Astron. 10, 147 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Redfern, R. M.

C. O'Sullivan, R. M. Redfern, N. Ageorges, H.-C. Holstenberg, W. Hackenberg, T. Ott, S. Rabien, R. Davies, and A. Eckart, Exp. Astron. 10, 147 (2000).
[CrossRef]

She, C. Y.

C. Y. She, T. Li, R. C. Collins, T. Yuan, B. P. Williams, T. D. Kawahara, J. D. Vance, P. Acott, D. A. Krueger, H.-L. Liu, and M. E. Hagan, Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L24111 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Herriot, P. Hickson, B. E. Ellerbroek, and C. Y. She, "Focus errors from tracking sodium layer altitude variations with laser guide star adaptive optics for the Thirty-Meter Telescope," in Proc. SPIE 6272 (to be published).

Vance, J. D.

C. Y. She, T. Li, R. C. Collins, T. Yuan, B. P. Williams, T. D. Kawahara, J. D. Vance, P. Acott, D. A. Krueger, H.-L. Liu, and M. E. Hagan, Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L24111 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Williams, B. P.

C. Y. She, T. Li, R. C. Collins, T. Yuan, B. P. Williams, T. D. Kawahara, J. D. Vance, P. Acott, D. A. Krueger, H.-L. Liu, and M. E. Hagan, Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L24111 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, T.

C. Y. She, T. Li, R. C. Collins, T. Yuan, B. P. Williams, T. D. Kawahara, J. D. Vance, P. Acott, D. A. Krueger, H.-L. Liu, and M. E. Hagan, Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L24111 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (1)

J. M. Beckers, Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 31, 13 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Exp. Astron. (1)

C. O'Sullivan, R. M. Redfern, N. Ageorges, H.-C. Holstenberg, W. Hackenberg, T. Ott, S. Rabien, R. Davies, and A. Eckart, Exp. Astron. 10, 147 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

C. Y. She, T. Li, R. C. Collins, T. Yuan, B. P. Williams, T. D. Kawahara, J. D. Vance, P. Acott, D. A. Krueger, H.-L. Liu, and M. E. Hagan, Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L24111 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

G. Herriot, P. Hickson, B. E. Ellerbroek, and C. Y. She, "Focus errors from tracking sodium layer altitude variations with laser guide star adaptive optics for the Thirty-Meter Telescope," in Proc. SPIE 6272 (to be published).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Time series of the centroid height for December 24. Channel 1, solid curve; channel 2, is dotted curve.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Mean height power spectrum and power-law fits for December 24, with α indicating the slope and β indicating the offset.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Cumulative distribution for the calculated RWFE for both channels of the 28 nights with more than 7 h of data with acceptable data quality.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

σ = 1 8 3 ( D h ) 2 Δ h ,
RWFE = 1 8 3 ( D h ) 2 ( ν 1 ν 2 h Na H rej 2 d f ) 1 2 .

Metrics