Abstract

A new radio-frequency (RF) photonic technique for achieving large RF time delays has been experimentally demonstrated using femtosecond pulses modulated by an acousto-optic tunable filter in a frequency-mapped and Doppler-shifted modulation scheme. A short optical delay line with length of 240μm produces nearly 3μs RF time delay after optical heterodyne detection, resulting in an effective slow-light velocity of 86ms. A delay-to-pulse-width ratio of 20 based on this technique has been observed, with a larger fractional delay foreseeable.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Kasapi, M. Jain, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2447 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 253902 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. Scheuer, G. T. Paloczi, J. K. S. Poon, and A. Yariv, Opt. Photonics News 16(2), 36 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. W. Boyd, D. J. Gauthier, A. L. Gaeta, and A. E. Wilner, Phys. Rev. A 71, 023801 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. I. Voskresenskii, A. I. Grinev, and E. N. Voronin, Electrooptical Arrays (Springer-Verlag, 1989).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. G. Lenz, B. J. Eggleton, C. K. Madsen, and R. E. Slusher, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 525 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. M. Camacho, M. V. Pack, and J. C. Howell, Phys. Rev. A 73, 063812 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. L. H. Gesell and T. M. Turpin, in Proc. SPIE 1703, 592 (1992).
  11. Q. Sun, Y. V. Rostovtsev, J. P. Dowling, M. O. Scully, and M. S. Zubairy, Phys. Rev. A 72, 031802 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. L. Gao, S. Herriot, and K. H. Wagner, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 315 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. P. Tournois, Opt. Commun. 140, 245 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (1)

L. Gao, S. Herriot, and K. H. Wagner, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 315 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (6)

J. Scheuer, G. T. Paloczi, J. K. S. Poon, and A. Yariv, Opt. Photonics News 16(2), 36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Boyd, D. J. Gauthier, A. L. Gaeta, and A. E. Wilner, Phys. Rev. A 71, 023801 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Tucker, P. C. Ku, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 4046 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Khurgin, Opt. Lett. 30, 2778 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Camacho, M. V. Pack, and J. C. Howell, Phys. Rev. A 73, 063812 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. Sun, Y. V. Rostovtsev, J. P. Dowling, M. O. Scully, and M. S. Zubairy, Phys. Rev. A 72, 031802 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 253902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Lenz, B. J. Eggleton, C. K. Madsen, and R. E. Slusher, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 525 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

P. Tournois, Opt. Commun. 140, 245 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

A. Kasapi, M. Jain, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2447 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boyd, R. W.

R. W. Boyd, D. J. Gauthier, A. L. Gaeta, and A. E. Wilner, Phys. Rev. A 71, 023801 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Camacho, R. M.

R. M. Camacho, M. V. Pack, and J. C. Howell, Phys. Rev. A 73, 063812 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chang-Hasnain, C. J.

Colice, M.

K. H. Wagner, F. Schlottau, M. Colice, G. Kriehn, and R. T. Weverka, in Proceedings of IEEE Microwave Photonics (MWP'03) (IEEE, 2003), pp. 333-336.
[CrossRef]

Dowling, J. P.

Q. Sun, Y. V. Rostovtsev, J. P. Dowling, M. O. Scully, and M. S. Zubairy, Phys. Rev. A 72, 031802 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

G. Lenz, B. J. Eggleton, C. K. Madsen, and R. E. Slusher, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 525 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gaeta, A. L.

R. W. Boyd, D. J. Gauthier, A. L. Gaeta, and A. E. Wilner, Phys. Rev. A 71, 023801 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gao, L.

L. Gao, S. Herriot, and K. H. Wagner, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 315 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gauthier, D. J.

R. W. Boyd, D. J. Gauthier, A. L. Gaeta, and A. E. Wilner, Phys. Rev. A 71, 023801 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gesell, L. H.

L. H. Gesell and T. M. Turpin, in Proc. SPIE 1703, 592 (1992).

Grinev, A. I.

D. I. Voskresenskii, A. I. Grinev, and E. N. Voronin, Electrooptical Arrays (Springer-Verlag, 1989).
[CrossRef]

Harris, S. E.

A. Kasapi, M. Jain, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2447 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herriot, S.

L. Gao, S. Herriot, and K. H. Wagner, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 315 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Howell, J. C.

R. M. Camacho, M. V. Pack, and J. C. Howell, Phys. Rev. A 73, 063812 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jain, M.

A. Kasapi, M. Jain, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2447 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kasapi, A.

A. Kasapi, M. Jain, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2447 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khurgin, J.

Kriehn, G.

K. H. Wagner, F. Schlottau, M. Colice, G. Kriehn, and R. T. Weverka, in Proceedings of IEEE Microwave Photonics (MWP'03) (IEEE, 2003), pp. 333-336.
[CrossRef]

Ku, P. C.

Lenz, G.

G. Lenz, B. J. Eggleton, C. K. Madsen, and R. E. Slusher, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 525 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Madsen, C. K.

G. Lenz, B. J. Eggleton, C. K. Madsen, and R. E. Slusher, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 525 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Notomi, M.

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 253902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pack, M. V.

R. M. Camacho, M. V. Pack, and J. C. Howell, Phys. Rev. A 73, 063812 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Paloczi, G. T.

J. Scheuer, G. T. Paloczi, J. K. S. Poon, and A. Yariv, Opt. Photonics News 16(2), 36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Poon, J. K. S.

J. Scheuer, G. T. Paloczi, J. K. S. Poon, and A. Yariv, Opt. Photonics News 16(2), 36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rostovtsev, Y. V.

Q. Sun, Y. V. Rostovtsev, J. P. Dowling, M. O. Scully, and M. S. Zubairy, Phys. Rev. A 72, 031802 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Scheuer, J.

J. Scheuer, G. T. Paloczi, J. K. S. Poon, and A. Yariv, Opt. Photonics News 16(2), 36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schlottau, F.

K. H. Wagner, F. Schlottau, M. Colice, G. Kriehn, and R. T. Weverka, in Proceedings of IEEE Microwave Photonics (MWP'03) (IEEE, 2003), pp. 333-336.
[CrossRef]

Scully, M. O.

Q. Sun, Y. V. Rostovtsev, J. P. Dowling, M. O. Scully, and M. S. Zubairy, Phys. Rev. A 72, 031802 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shinya, A.

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 253902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Slusher, R. E.

G. Lenz, B. J. Eggleton, C. K. Madsen, and R. E. Slusher, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 525 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Q.

Q. Sun, Y. V. Rostovtsev, J. P. Dowling, M. O. Scully, and M. S. Zubairy, Phys. Rev. A 72, 031802 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, C.

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 253902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takahashi, J.

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 253902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tournois, P.

P. Tournois, Opt. Commun. 140, 245 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tucker, R. S.

Turpin, T. M.

L. H. Gesell and T. M. Turpin, in Proc. SPIE 1703, 592 (1992).

Voronin, E. N.

D. I. Voskresenskii, A. I. Grinev, and E. N. Voronin, Electrooptical Arrays (Springer-Verlag, 1989).
[CrossRef]

Voskresenskii, D. I.

D. I. Voskresenskii, A. I. Grinev, and E. N. Voronin, Electrooptical Arrays (Springer-Verlag, 1989).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, K. H.

L. Gao, S. Herriot, and K. H. Wagner, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 315 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Wagner, F. Schlottau, M. Colice, G. Kriehn, and R. T. Weverka, in Proceedings of IEEE Microwave Photonics (MWP'03) (IEEE, 2003), pp. 333-336.
[CrossRef]

Weverka, R. T.

K. H. Wagner, F. Schlottau, M. Colice, G. Kriehn, and R. T. Weverka, in Proceedings of IEEE Microwave Photonics (MWP'03) (IEEE, 2003), pp. 333-336.
[CrossRef]

Wilner, A. E.

R. W. Boyd, D. J. Gauthier, A. L. Gaeta, and A. E. Wilner, Phys. Rev. A 71, 023801 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, K.

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 253902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yariv, A.

J. Scheuer, G. T. Paloczi, J. K. S. Poon, and A. Yariv, Opt. Photonics News 16(2), 36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yin, G. Y.

A. Kasapi, M. Jain, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2447 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yokohama, I.

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 253902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zubairy, M. S.

Q. Sun, Y. V. Rostovtsev, J. P. Dowling, M. O. Scully, and M. S. Zubairy, Phys. Rev. A 72, 031802 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

G. Lenz, B. J. Eggleton, C. K. Madsen, and R. E. Slusher, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 525 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

L. Gao, S. Herriot, and K. H. Wagner, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 315 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

P. Tournois, Opt. Commun. 140, 245 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Photonics News (1)

J. Scheuer, G. T. Paloczi, J. K. S. Poon, and A. Yariv, Opt. Photonics News 16(2), 36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (3)

R. W. Boyd, D. J. Gauthier, A. L. Gaeta, and A. E. Wilner, Phys. Rev. A 71, 023801 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Camacho, M. V. Pack, and J. C. Howell, Phys. Rev. A 73, 063812 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. Sun, Y. V. Rostovtsev, J. P. Dowling, M. O. Scully, and M. S. Zubairy, Phys. Rev. A 72, 031802 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

A. Kasapi, M. Jain, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2447 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 253902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

D. I. Voskresenskii, A. I. Grinev, and E. N. Voronin, Electrooptical Arrays (Springer-Verlag, 1989).
[CrossRef]

L. H. Gesell and T. M. Turpin, in Proc. SPIE 1703, 592 (1992).

K. H. Wagner, F. Schlottau, M. Colice, G. Kriehn, and R. T. Weverka, in Proceedings of IEEE Microwave Photonics (MWP'03) (IEEE, 2003), pp. 333-336.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Femtosecond comb modulated by 3 RF tones using an AOTF with frequency-dependent Doppler shift.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Time domain interpretation of the readout of an AOTF with a femtosecond comb and subsequent heterodyne detection to reproduce the applied RF signal.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setup for sluggish light. The modulated pulse train is delayed with respect to the undiffracted pulse train (the reference), resulting in a magnified time delay for the heterodyne-detected RF signal. DPSS pump, diode-pumped solid-state pump; BS, beam splitter.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Sluggish-light experimental results of a 150 ns RF signal delayed by 3 μ s via an optical free-space delay of 240 μ m , achieving a time–bandwidth product of 20.

Equations (1)

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T d = d ϕ ( ω ) d Ω = d ( ω L c ) d ( ω α ) = L c α L v s ,

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