Abstract

By controlling the morphology of holographic polymer-dispersed ferroelectric liquid crystals (FLCs), highly aligned FLC domains are obtained for diffractive optical applications. Rapid, thresholdless switching is observed for various grating pitch sizes between 3 and 12μm. A simple phenomenological model is presented encompassing a distribution of domain sizes and an effective field that stabilizes the FLC domains to reflect the observed thresholdless switching and optical behavior.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. J. Escuti, J. Qi, and G. P. Crawford, Opt. Lett. 28, 522 (2003).
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    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. M. L. Ermold and A. K. Fontecchio, J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 13, 787 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Qi, M. E. Sousa, and G. P. Crawford, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 433, 267 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. A. Crossland, T. V. Clapp, T. D. Wilkinson, I. G. Manolis, A. G. Georgiou, and B. Robertson, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 413, 2499 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Molsen and H. S. Kitzerow, J. Appl. Phys. 75, 710 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 1997).

2005

S. P. Gorkhali, J. Qi, and G. P. Crawford, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 011110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Ermold and A. K. Fontecchio, J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 13, 787 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Qi, M. E. Sousa, and G. P. Crawford, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 433, 267 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Eakin, G. P. Crawford, and M. D. Radcliffe, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 429, 277 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

W. A. Crossland, T. V. Clapp, T. D. Wilkinson, I. G. Manolis, A. G. Georgiou, and B. Robertson, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 413, 2499 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

2002

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, S. Chandra, D. Tomlin, and T. J. Bunning, Opt. Express 10, 1074 (2002).
[PubMed]

M. De Sarkar, J. Qi, and G. P. Crawford, Polymer 43, 7335 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Vardanyan, J. Qi, J. N. Eakin, M. De Sarkar, and G. P. Crawford, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4736 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1994

H. Molsen and H. S. Kitzerow, J. Appl. Phys. 75, 710 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992

H. S. Kitzerow, H. Molsen, and G. Heppke, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 3093 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 1997).

Bunning, T. J.

Chandra, S.

Clapp, T. V.

W. A. Crossland, T. V. Clapp, T. D. Wilkinson, I. G. Manolis, A. G. Georgiou, and B. Robertson, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 413, 2499 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, G. P.

J. Qi, M. E. Sousa, and G. P. Crawford, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 433, 267 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Gorkhali, J. Qi, and G. P. Crawford, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 011110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Eakin, G. P. Crawford, and M. D. Radcliffe, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 429, 277 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Escuti, J. Qi, and G. P. Crawford, Opt. Lett. 28, 522 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. De Sarkar, J. Qi, and G. P. Crawford, Polymer 43, 7335 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Vardanyan, J. Qi, J. N. Eakin, M. De Sarkar, and G. P. Crawford, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4736 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Crossland, W. A.

W. A. Crossland, T. V. Clapp, T. D. Wilkinson, I. G. Manolis, A. G. Georgiou, and B. Robertson, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 413, 2499 (2004).
[CrossRef]

De Sarkar, M.

K. K. Vardanyan, J. Qi, J. N. Eakin, M. De Sarkar, and G. P. Crawford, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4736 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. De Sarkar, J. Qi, and G. P. Crawford, Polymer 43, 7335 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Eakin, J. N.

J. N. Eakin, G. P. Crawford, and M. D. Radcliffe, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 429, 277 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Vardanyan, J. Qi, J. N. Eakin, M. De Sarkar, and G. P. Crawford, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4736 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ermold, M. L.

M. L. Ermold and A. K. Fontecchio, J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 13, 787 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Escuti, M. J.

Fontecchio, A. K.

M. L. Ermold and A. K. Fontecchio, J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 13, 787 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Georgiou, A. G.

W. A. Crossland, T. V. Clapp, T. D. Wilkinson, I. G. Manolis, A. G. Georgiou, and B. Robertson, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 413, 2499 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gorkhali, S. P.

S. P. Gorkhali, J. Qi, and G. P. Crawford, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 011110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Heppke, G.

H. S. Kitzerow, H. Molsen, and G. Heppke, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 3093 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kitzerow, H. S.

H. Molsen and H. S. Kitzerow, J. Appl. Phys. 75, 710 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Kitzerow, H. Molsen, and G. Heppke, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 3093 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Manolis, I. G.

W. A. Crossland, T. V. Clapp, T. D. Wilkinson, I. G. Manolis, A. G. Georgiou, and B. Robertson, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 413, 2499 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Molsen, H.

H. Molsen and H. S. Kitzerow, J. Appl. Phys. 75, 710 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Kitzerow, H. Molsen, and G. Heppke, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 3093 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Natarajan, L. V.

Qi, J.

S. P. Gorkhali, J. Qi, and G. P. Crawford, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 011110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Qi, M. E. Sousa, and G. P. Crawford, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 433, 267 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Escuti, J. Qi, and G. P. Crawford, Opt. Lett. 28, 522 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. De Sarkar, J. Qi, and G. P. Crawford, Polymer 43, 7335 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Vardanyan, J. Qi, J. N. Eakin, M. De Sarkar, and G. P. Crawford, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4736 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Radcliffe, M. D.

J. N. Eakin, G. P. Crawford, and M. D. Radcliffe, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 429, 277 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Robertson, B.

W. A. Crossland, T. V. Clapp, T. D. Wilkinson, I. G. Manolis, A. G. Georgiou, and B. Robertson, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 413, 2499 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sousa, M. E.

J. Qi, M. E. Sousa, and G. P. Crawford, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 433, 267 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sutherland, R. L.

Tomlin, D.

Tondiglia, V. P.

Vardanyan, K. K.

K. K. Vardanyan, J. Qi, J. N. Eakin, M. De Sarkar, and G. P. Crawford, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4736 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wilkinson, T. D.

W. A. Crossland, T. V. Clapp, T. D. Wilkinson, I. G. Manolis, A. G. Georgiou, and B. Robertson, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 413, 2499 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 1997).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. P. Gorkhali, J. Qi, and G. P. Crawford, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 011110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Vardanyan, J. Qi, J. N. Eakin, M. De Sarkar, and G. P. Crawford, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4736 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Kitzerow, H. Molsen, and G. Heppke, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 3093 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

H. Molsen and H. S. Kitzerow, J. Appl. Phys. 75, 710 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Soc. Inf. Disp.

M. L. Ermold and A. K. Fontecchio, J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 13, 787 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.

J. Qi, M. E. Sousa, and G. P. Crawford, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 433, 267 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Crossland, T. V. Clapp, T. D. Wilkinson, I. G. Manolis, A. G. Georgiou, and B. Robertson, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 413, 2499 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Eakin, G. P. Crawford, and M. D. Radcliffe, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 429, 277 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Polymer

M. De Sarkar, J. Qi, and G. P. Crawford, Polymer 43, 7335 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 1997).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical polarizing microscopy images of the H-PDFLC gratings at 0° and 45° between crossed polarizers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of FLC alignment between polymer walls.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized zero-order transmission data (◻) and fit (−) with incident s polarization as a function of the applied electric field are used to model and predict the first-order diffraction intensity for incident s polarization (−) and are compared with experimental data (◻) for each pitch.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Calculated Average Domain Orientation Deviations for H-PDFLCs of Different Pitches

Equations (2)

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I diff ( s ) ( E ) J ( J J ) sin 2 ( Δ Θ ) ( J J ) 1 2 sin 2 ( Δ Θ ) Y ( E ) 2 ,
I ( θ = 0 ° , E ) = 1 2 { [ 2 Y ( E ) ] I ( θ = 0 ° , E = 0 ) + Y ( E ) I ( θ = 2 φ , E = 0 ) } ,

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