Abstract

We report what is believed to be the first experimental demonstration of a wideband spectral coherent process driven by a frequency-agile laser in a rare-earth-ion-doped crystal. The very demanding chirp-transform algorithm is studied in detail and is applied to radio-frequency spectral analysis. A time–bandwidth product of 24,000 is demonstrated.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. Xiao and A. M. Weiner, Opt. Express 14, 3073 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. Arain and N. A. Riza, Appl. Opt. 45, 2428 (2006).
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  3. L. Pastur, S. Tonda-Goldstein, D. Dolfi, J.-P. Huignard, T. Merlet, O. Maas, and J. Chazelas, Appl. Opt. 38, 3105 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Han, O. Boyraz, and B. Jalali, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 24116 (2005).
  5. R. E. Saperstein, D. Panasenko, and Y. Fainman, Opt. Lett. 29, 501 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Y. Sun, C. W. Thiel, R. L. Cone, R. W. Equall, and R. L. Hutcheson, J. Lumin. 98, 281 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. Gorju, V. Crozatier, I. Lorgeré, J.-L. Le Gouët, and F. Bretenaker, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2385 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. F. Schlottau, M. Colice, K. H. Wagner, and W. R. Babbitt, Opt. Lett. 30, 3003 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. R. Reibel, D. E. Benson, T. Berg, Z. Cole, K. D. Merkel, and W. R. Babbitt, in International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, 2005), p. 273.
  10. L. Ménager, J.-L. Le Gouët, and I. Lorgeré, Opt. Lett. 26, 1397 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. V. Crozatier, V. Lavielle, F. Bretenaker, J.-L. Le Gouët, and I. Lorgeré, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1450 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. Reibel, T. Chang, M. Tian, and W. R. Babbitt, in 2004 IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, 2004), p. 197.
  13. T. Bottger, C. W. Thiel, Y. Sun, and R. L. Cone, Phys. Rev. B 73, 075101 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. Bottger, "Laser stabilization to spectral hole burning frequency references in Er doped crystals: material and device optimization," Ph.D. dissertation (Montana State University, 2002).
  15. L. Ménager, L. Cabaret, I. Lorgeré, and J.-L. Le Gouët, Opt. Lett. 25, 1246 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  16. See, e.g., Temex product line (www.temex.com).

2006

2005

F. Schlottau, M. Colice, K. H. Wagner, and W. R. Babbitt, Opt. Lett. 30, 3003 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Han, O. Boyraz, and B. Jalali, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 24116 (2005).

G. Gorju, V. Crozatier, I. Lorgeré, J.-L. Le Gouët, and F. Bretenaker, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2385 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

V. Crozatier, V. Lavielle, F. Bretenaker, J.-L. Le Gouët, and I. Lorgeré, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1450 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Saperstein, D. Panasenko, and Y. Fainman, Opt. Lett. 29, 501 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

Y. Sun, C. W. Thiel, R. L. Cone, R. W. Equall, and R. L. Hutcheson, J. Lumin. 98, 281 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

2000

1999

Arain, M.

Babbitt, W. R.

F. Schlottau, M. Colice, K. H. Wagner, and W. R. Babbitt, Opt. Lett. 30, 3003 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Reibel, T. Chang, M. Tian, and W. R. Babbitt, in 2004 IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, 2004), p. 197.

R. Reibel, D. E. Benson, T. Berg, Z. Cole, K. D. Merkel, and W. R. Babbitt, in International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, 2005), p. 273.

Benson, D. E.

R. Reibel, D. E. Benson, T. Berg, Z. Cole, K. D. Merkel, and W. R. Babbitt, in International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, 2005), p. 273.

Berg, T.

R. Reibel, D. E. Benson, T. Berg, Z. Cole, K. D. Merkel, and W. R. Babbitt, in International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, 2005), p. 273.

Bottger, T.

T. Bottger, C. W. Thiel, Y. Sun, and R. L. Cone, Phys. Rev. B 73, 075101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Bottger, "Laser stabilization to spectral hole burning frequency references in Er doped crystals: material and device optimization," Ph.D. dissertation (Montana State University, 2002).

Boyraz, O.

Y. Han, O. Boyraz, and B. Jalali, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 24116 (2005).

Bretenaker, F.

G. Gorju, V. Crozatier, I. Lorgeré, J.-L. Le Gouët, and F. Bretenaker, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2385 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Crozatier, V. Lavielle, F. Bretenaker, J.-L. Le Gouët, and I. Lorgeré, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1450 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cabaret, L.

Chang, T.

R. Reibel, T. Chang, M. Tian, and W. R. Babbitt, in 2004 IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, 2004), p. 197.

Chazelas, J.

Cole, Z.

R. Reibel, D. E. Benson, T. Berg, Z. Cole, K. D. Merkel, and W. R. Babbitt, in International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, 2005), p. 273.

Colice, M.

Cone, R. L.

T. Bottger, C. W. Thiel, Y. Sun, and R. L. Cone, Phys. Rev. B 73, 075101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun, C. W. Thiel, R. L. Cone, R. W. Equall, and R. L. Hutcheson, J. Lumin. 98, 281 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Crozatier, V.

G. Gorju, V. Crozatier, I. Lorgeré, J.-L. Le Gouët, and F. Bretenaker, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2385 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Crozatier, V. Lavielle, F. Bretenaker, J.-L. Le Gouët, and I. Lorgeré, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1450 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dolfi, D.

Equall, R. W.

Y. Sun, C. W. Thiel, R. L. Cone, R. W. Equall, and R. L. Hutcheson, J. Lumin. 98, 281 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fainman, Y.

Gorju, G.

G. Gorju, V. Crozatier, I. Lorgeré, J.-L. Le Gouët, and F. Bretenaker, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2385 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Han, Y.

Y. Han, O. Boyraz, and B. Jalali, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 24116 (2005).

Huignard, J.-P.

Hutcheson, R. L.

Y. Sun, C. W. Thiel, R. L. Cone, R. W. Equall, and R. L. Hutcheson, J. Lumin. 98, 281 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jalali, B.

Y. Han, O. Boyraz, and B. Jalali, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 24116 (2005).

Lavielle, V.

V. Crozatier, V. Lavielle, F. Bretenaker, J.-L. Le Gouët, and I. Lorgeré, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1450 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Le Gouët, J.-L.

G. Gorju, V. Crozatier, I. Lorgeré, J.-L. Le Gouët, and F. Bretenaker, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2385 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Crozatier, V. Lavielle, F. Bretenaker, J.-L. Le Gouët, and I. Lorgeré, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1450 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Ménager, J.-L. Le Gouët, and I. Lorgeré, Opt. Lett. 26, 1397 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Ménager, L. Cabaret, I. Lorgeré, and J.-L. Le Gouët, Opt. Lett. 25, 1246 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lorgeré, I.

G. Gorju, V. Crozatier, I. Lorgeré, J.-L. Le Gouët, and F. Bretenaker, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2385 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Crozatier, V. Lavielle, F. Bretenaker, J.-L. Le Gouët, and I. Lorgeré, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1450 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Ménager, J.-L. Le Gouët, and I. Lorgeré, Opt. Lett. 26, 1397 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Ménager, L. Cabaret, I. Lorgeré, and J.-L. Le Gouët, Opt. Lett. 25, 1246 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Maas, O.

Ménager, L.

Merkel, K. D.

R. Reibel, D. E. Benson, T. Berg, Z. Cole, K. D. Merkel, and W. R. Babbitt, in International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, 2005), p. 273.

Merlet, T.

Panasenko, D.

Pastur, L.

Reibel, R.

R. Reibel, D. E. Benson, T. Berg, Z. Cole, K. D. Merkel, and W. R. Babbitt, in International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, 2005), p. 273.

R. Reibel, T. Chang, M. Tian, and W. R. Babbitt, in 2004 IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, 2004), p. 197.

Riza, N. A.

Saperstein, R. E.

Schlottau, F.

Sun, Y.

T. Bottger, C. W. Thiel, Y. Sun, and R. L. Cone, Phys. Rev. B 73, 075101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun, C. W. Thiel, R. L. Cone, R. W. Equall, and R. L. Hutcheson, J. Lumin. 98, 281 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Thiel, C. W.

T. Bottger, C. W. Thiel, Y. Sun, and R. L. Cone, Phys. Rev. B 73, 075101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun, C. W. Thiel, R. L. Cone, R. W. Equall, and R. L. Hutcheson, J. Lumin. 98, 281 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tian, M.

R. Reibel, T. Chang, M. Tian, and W. R. Babbitt, in 2004 IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, 2004), p. 197.

Tonda-Goldstein, S.

Wagner, K. H.

Weiner, A. M.

Xiao, S.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Y. Han, O. Boyraz, and B. Jalali, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 24116 (2005).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

V. Crozatier, V. Lavielle, F. Bretenaker, J.-L. Le Gouët, and I. Lorgeré, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1450 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

G. Gorju, V. Crozatier, I. Lorgeré, J.-L. Le Gouët, and F. Bretenaker, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2385 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin.

Y. Sun, C. W. Thiel, R. L. Cone, R. W. Equall, and R. L. Hutcheson, J. Lumin. 98, 281 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B

T. Bottger, C. W. Thiel, Y. Sun, and R. L. Cone, Phys. Rev. B 73, 075101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other

T. Bottger, "Laser stabilization to spectral hole burning frequency references in Er doped crystals: material and device optimization," Ph.D. dissertation (Montana State University, 2002).

See, e.g., Temex product line (www.temex.com).

R. Reibel, T. Chang, M. Tian, and W. R. Babbitt, in 2004 IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, 2004), p. 197.

R. Reibel, D. E. Benson, T. Berg, Z. Cole, K. D. Merkel, and W. R. Babbitt, in International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, 2005), p. 273.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Timing of the experiments: (a) laser frequency trajectory, (b) AO1 control (O, open; C, closed), (c) Mach–Zehnder modulator control.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup: CC, chirp control electronics; AWG, arbitrary waveform generator; PC, polarization controller; MZ, integrated Mach–Zehnder modulator; EDFA, erbium-doped fiber amplifier; AO, acousto-optic modulator; L, collimating and focusing optics; PD, photodiode.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental compressed pulse for (a) T s = 1 μ s (response averaged over 16 samples), (b) 15 μ s (average over 62 samples). The dotted curve in (a) is the theoretical expectation, and (b) is an enlargement of the strongest peak of Fig. 4.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Power spectrum of an RF signal as displayed by the echo signal, averaged over 62 shots. The circles show the heights of the peaks obtained from the numerical Fourier transform of the same RF signal.

Equations (2)

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s ̃ ( f = r t ) [ s ( t ) exp ( i π r t 2 ) ] exp ( i π r t 2 ) ,
E e ( t ) E 1 * ( t ) E 2 ( t ) E 3 ( t ) .

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