Abstract

The relative distribution of five elements present in the core area of several optical fiber samples has been obtained by utilizing nanoscale-secondary ion mass spectrometry. A strong correlation between the rare-earth (RE) ion and aluminum was observed, consistent with aluminum's improving the solubility of the RE ion. The central dip in distribution was less severe than that observed for germanium, characteristic of the collapse process during fabrication of the fiber preform.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2001 (1)

J. C. Martin, Opt. Commun. 194, 331 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

D. T. Bowron, R. J. Newport, J. S. Rigden, E. J. Tarbox, and M. Oversluizen, J. Mater. Sci. 38, 485 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

S. Rogard, A. Bulou, H. Poignant, and M. Rousseau, Opt. Mater. 4, 557 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Othonos, J. Wheeldon, and M. Hubert, Opt. Eng. 34, 3451 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

A. C. Pugh, R. P. Stratton, and D. B. Lewis, J. Mater. Sci. 29, 1036 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (3)

B. J. Ainslie, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 220 (1991).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Barnes, R. I. Laming, E. J. Tarbox, and P. R. Morkel, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1004 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. Kashiwada, M. Shigematsu, T. Kougo, H. Kanamori, and M. Nishimura, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 721 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

E. Desurvire, J. L. Zyskind, and C. R. Giles, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1730 (1990).
[CrossRef]

N. Kagi, A. Oyobe, and K. NakamuraJ. Lightwave Technol. 8,1319 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ainslie, B. J.

B. J. Ainslie, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 220 (1991).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Ainslie, J. R. Armitage, S. P. Craig, and B. Wakefield, in Proceedings of IEE 14th European Conference on Optical Communication (Institution of Electrical Engineers, 1988), pp. 62-65.

Armitage, J. R.

B. J. Ainslie, J. R. Armitage, S. P. Craig, and B. Wakefield, in Proceedings of IEE 14th European Conference on Optical Communication (Institution of Electrical Engineers, 1988), pp. 62-65.

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, R. I. Laming, E. J. Tarbox, and P. R. Morkel, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1004 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Baxter, G. W.

Bowron, D. T.

D. T. Bowron, R. J. Newport, J. S. Rigden, E. J. Tarbox, and M. Oversluizen, J. Mater. Sci. 38, 485 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bulou, A.

S. Rogard, A. Bulou, H. Poignant, and M. Rousseau, Opt. Mater. 4, 557 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Craig, S. P.

B. J. Ainslie, J. R. Armitage, S. P. Craig, and B. Wakefield, in Proceedings of IEE 14th European Conference on Optical Communication (Institution of Electrical Engineers, 1988), pp. 62-65.

Desurvire, E.

E. Desurvire, J. L. Zyskind, and C. R. Giles, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1730 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Digonnet, M. J. F.

M. J. F. Digonnet, Rare-Earth-Doped Fiber Lasers and Amplifiers, 2nd ed. (Dekker, 2001).
[CrossRef]

Giles, C. R.

E. Desurvire, J. L. Zyskind, and C. R. Giles, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1730 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hubert, M.

A. Othonos, J. Wheeldon, and M. Hubert, Opt. Eng. 34, 3451 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Huntington, S. T.

Kagi, N.

N. Kagi, A. Oyobe, and K. NakamuraJ. Lightwave Technol. 8,1319 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kanamori, H.

T. Kashiwada, M. Shigematsu, T. Kougo, H. Kanamori, and M. Nishimura, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 721 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kashiwada, T.

T. Kashiwada, M. Shigematsu, T. Kougo, H. Kanamori, and M. Nishimura, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 721 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kougo, T.

T. Kashiwada, M. Shigematsu, T. Kougo, H. Kanamori, and M. Nishimura, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 721 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Laming, R. I.

W. L. Barnes, R. I. Laming, E. J. Tarbox, and P. R. Morkel, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1004 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, D. B.

A. C. Pugh, R. P. Stratton, and D. B. Lewis, J. Mater. Sci. 29, 1036 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Martin, J. C.

J. C. Martin, Opt. Commun. 194, 331 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Morkel, P. R.

W. L. Barnes, R. I. Laming, E. J. Tarbox, and P. R. Morkel, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1004 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, K.

N. Kagi, A. Oyobe, and K. NakamuraJ. Lightwave Technol. 8,1319 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Newport, R. J.

D. T. Bowron, R. J. Newport, J. S. Rigden, E. J. Tarbox, and M. Oversluizen, J. Mater. Sci. 38, 485 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nishimura, M.

T. Kashiwada, M. Shigematsu, T. Kougo, H. Kanamori, and M. Nishimura, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 721 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Othonos, A.

A. Othonos, J. Wheeldon, and M. Hubert, Opt. Eng. 34, 3451 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Oversluizen, M.

D. T. Bowron, R. J. Newport, J. S. Rigden, E. J. Tarbox, and M. Oversluizen, J. Mater. Sci. 38, 485 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Oyobe, A.

N. Kagi, A. Oyobe, and K. NakamuraJ. Lightwave Technol. 8,1319 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Poignant, H.

S. Rogard, A. Bulou, H. Poignant, and M. Rousseau, Opt. Mater. 4, 557 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pugh, A. C.

A. C. Pugh, R. P. Stratton, and D. B. Lewis, J. Mater. Sci. 29, 1036 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rigden, J. S.

D. T. Bowron, R. J. Newport, J. S. Rigden, E. J. Tarbox, and M. Oversluizen, J. Mater. Sci. 38, 485 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, A.

Rogard, S.

S. Rogard, A. Bulou, H. Poignant, and M. Rousseau, Opt. Mater. 4, 557 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rousseau, M.

S. Rogard, A. Bulou, H. Poignant, and M. Rousseau, Opt. Mater. 4, 557 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shigematsu, M.

T. Kashiwada, M. Shigematsu, T. Kougo, H. Kanamori, and M. Nishimura, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 721 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sidiroglou, F.

Stratton, R. P.

A. C. Pugh, R. P. Stratton, and D. B. Lewis, J. Mater. Sci. 29, 1036 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tarbox, E. J.

D. T. Bowron, R. J. Newport, J. S. Rigden, E. J. Tarbox, and M. Oversluizen, J. Mater. Sci. 38, 485 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Barnes, R. I. Laming, E. J. Tarbox, and P. R. Morkel, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1004 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wakefield, B.

B. J. Ainslie, J. R. Armitage, S. P. Craig, and B. Wakefield, in Proceedings of IEE 14th European Conference on Optical Communication (Institution of Electrical Engineers, 1988), pp. 62-65.

Wheeldon, J.

A. Othonos, J. Wheeldon, and M. Hubert, Opt. Eng. 34, 3451 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zyskind, J. L.

E. Desurvire, J. L. Zyskind, and C. R. Giles, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1730 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

W. L. Barnes, R. I. Laming, E. J. Tarbox, and P. R. Morkel, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1004 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

T. Kashiwada, M. Shigematsu, T. Kougo, H. Kanamori, and M. Nishimura, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 721 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

E. Desurvire, J. L. Zyskind, and C. R. Giles, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1730 (1990).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Ainslie, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 220 (1991).
[CrossRef]

N. Kagi, A. Oyobe, and K. NakamuraJ. Lightwave Technol. 8,1319 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Sci. (2)

D. T. Bowron, R. J. Newport, J. S. Rigden, E. J. Tarbox, and M. Oversluizen, J. Mater. Sci. 38, 485 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Pugh, R. P. Stratton, and D. B. Lewis, J. Mater. Sci. 29, 1036 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. C. Martin, Opt. Commun. 194, 331 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

A. Othonos, J. Wheeldon, and M. Hubert, Opt. Eng. 34, 3451 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Mater. (1)

S. Rogard, A. Bulou, H. Poignant, and M. Rousseau, Opt. Mater. 4, 557 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

M. J. F. Digonnet, Rare-Earth-Doped Fiber Lasers and Amplifiers, 2nd ed. (Dekker, 2001).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Ainslie, J. R. Armitage, S. P. Craig, and B. Wakefield, in Proceedings of IEE 14th European Conference on Optical Communication (Institution of Electrical Engineers, 1988), pp. 62-65.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cross sections of the relative ion distribution in the core of an EDFA sample. (a) Er, (b) Al, (c) Ge, (d) P. The arrow indicates the direction along which subsequent line scans were obtained.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transverse line scan through the center of an experimental Er-doped fiber, showing the relative ion distribution of all dopants present in the fiber core.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transverse line scan through the center of an experimental Yb-doped fiber, showing the relative ion distribution of all dopants present in the fiber core.

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