Abstract

The spectroscopic application of a new broadband microelectromechanical-system-tunable vertical cavity surface-emitting laser with single-mode coverage of 60nm (245cm1) in a single, continuous sweep is described. The operation of the device is illustrated with high-resolution spectra of CO and CO2 over 110cm1 (27nm) and 67cm1 (17nm), respectively, with the CO band shown for high-pressure scans between 1 and 3bars (0.1–0.3 MPa). The achieved tuning range opens up new opportunities for tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy. The spectra were compared with HITRAN-derived model calculations. The benefits of a sensor based on this laser are greater speed, laser power, and tuning range.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. Maute, B. Kögel, G. Böhm, P. Meissner, and M. C. Amann, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 688 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. B. Kögel, M. Maute, H. Halbritter, F. Riemenschneider, G. Böhm, M. C. Amann, and P. Meissner, J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8, 370 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. B. Kögel, H. Halbritter, M. Maute, G. Böhm, M. C. Amann, and P. Meissner, presented at European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), September 24-28, 2006.
  4. L. Rothman, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 60, 665 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. Totschnig, M. Lackner, F. Winter, R. Shau, J. Rosskopf, M. Ortsiefer, and M. C. Amann, Appl. Phys. B 76, 603 (2003).
  6. V. Weldon, J. O'Gorman, J. J. Pérez-Camacho, D. McDonald, J. Hegarty, J. C. Connolly, N. A. Morris, R. U. Martinelli, and J. H. Abeles, Infrared Phys. Technol. 38, 325 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (2)

M. Maute, B. Kögel, G. Böhm, P. Meissner, and M. C. Amann, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 688 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Kögel, M. Maute, H. Halbritter, F. Riemenschneider, G. Böhm, M. C. Amann, and P. Meissner, J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8, 370 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

G. Totschnig, M. Lackner, F. Winter, R. Shau, J. Rosskopf, M. Ortsiefer, and M. C. Amann, Appl. Phys. B 76, 603 (2003).

1998 (1)

L. Rothman, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 60, 665 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

V. Weldon, J. O'Gorman, J. J. Pérez-Camacho, D. McDonald, J. Hegarty, J. C. Connolly, N. A. Morris, R. U. Martinelli, and J. H. Abeles, Infrared Phys. Technol. 38, 325 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Abeles, J. H.

V. Weldon, J. O'Gorman, J. J. Pérez-Camacho, D. McDonald, J. Hegarty, J. C. Connolly, N. A. Morris, R. U. Martinelli, and J. H. Abeles, Infrared Phys. Technol. 38, 325 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Amann, M. C.

M. Maute, B. Kögel, G. Böhm, P. Meissner, and M. C. Amann, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 688 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Kögel, M. Maute, H. Halbritter, F. Riemenschneider, G. Böhm, M. C. Amann, and P. Meissner, J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8, 370 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Totschnig, M. Lackner, F. Winter, R. Shau, J. Rosskopf, M. Ortsiefer, and M. C. Amann, Appl. Phys. B 76, 603 (2003).

B. Kögel, H. Halbritter, M. Maute, G. Böhm, M. C. Amann, and P. Meissner, presented at European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), September 24-28, 2006.

Böhm, G.

B. Kögel, M. Maute, H. Halbritter, F. Riemenschneider, G. Böhm, M. C. Amann, and P. Meissner, J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8, 370 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Maute, B. Kögel, G. Böhm, P. Meissner, and M. C. Amann, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 688 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Kögel, H. Halbritter, M. Maute, G. Böhm, M. C. Amann, and P. Meissner, presented at European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), September 24-28, 2006.

Connolly, J. C.

V. Weldon, J. O'Gorman, J. J. Pérez-Camacho, D. McDonald, J. Hegarty, J. C. Connolly, N. A. Morris, R. U. Martinelli, and J. H. Abeles, Infrared Phys. Technol. 38, 325 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Halbritter, H.

B. Kögel, M. Maute, H. Halbritter, F. Riemenschneider, G. Böhm, M. C. Amann, and P. Meissner, J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8, 370 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Kögel, H. Halbritter, M. Maute, G. Böhm, M. C. Amann, and P. Meissner, presented at European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), September 24-28, 2006.

Hegarty, J.

V. Weldon, J. O'Gorman, J. J. Pérez-Camacho, D. McDonald, J. Hegarty, J. C. Connolly, N. A. Morris, R. U. Martinelli, and J. H. Abeles, Infrared Phys. Technol. 38, 325 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kögel, B.

B. Kögel, M. Maute, H. Halbritter, F. Riemenschneider, G. Böhm, M. C. Amann, and P. Meissner, J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8, 370 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Maute, B. Kögel, G. Böhm, P. Meissner, and M. C. Amann, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 688 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Kögel, H. Halbritter, M. Maute, G. Böhm, M. C. Amann, and P. Meissner, presented at European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), September 24-28, 2006.

Lackner, M.

G. Totschnig, M. Lackner, F. Winter, R. Shau, J. Rosskopf, M. Ortsiefer, and M. C. Amann, Appl. Phys. B 76, 603 (2003).

Martinelli, R. U.

V. Weldon, J. O'Gorman, J. J. Pérez-Camacho, D. McDonald, J. Hegarty, J. C. Connolly, N. A. Morris, R. U. Martinelli, and J. H. Abeles, Infrared Phys. Technol. 38, 325 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Maute, M.

M. Maute, B. Kögel, G. Böhm, P. Meissner, and M. C. Amann, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 688 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Kögel, M. Maute, H. Halbritter, F. Riemenschneider, G. Böhm, M. C. Amann, and P. Meissner, J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8, 370 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Kögel, H. Halbritter, M. Maute, G. Böhm, M. C. Amann, and P. Meissner, presented at European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), September 24-28, 2006.

McDonald, D.

V. Weldon, J. O'Gorman, J. J. Pérez-Camacho, D. McDonald, J. Hegarty, J. C. Connolly, N. A. Morris, R. U. Martinelli, and J. H. Abeles, Infrared Phys. Technol. 38, 325 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Meissner, P.

M. Maute, B. Kögel, G. Böhm, P. Meissner, and M. C. Amann, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 688 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Kögel, M. Maute, H. Halbritter, F. Riemenschneider, G. Böhm, M. C. Amann, and P. Meissner, J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8, 370 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Kögel, H. Halbritter, M. Maute, G. Böhm, M. C. Amann, and P. Meissner, presented at European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), September 24-28, 2006.

Morris, N. A.

V. Weldon, J. O'Gorman, J. J. Pérez-Camacho, D. McDonald, J. Hegarty, J. C. Connolly, N. A. Morris, R. U. Martinelli, and J. H. Abeles, Infrared Phys. Technol. 38, 325 (1997).
[CrossRef]

O'Gorman, J.

V. Weldon, J. O'Gorman, J. J. Pérez-Camacho, D. McDonald, J. Hegarty, J. C. Connolly, N. A. Morris, R. U. Martinelli, and J. H. Abeles, Infrared Phys. Technol. 38, 325 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ortsiefer, M.

G. Totschnig, M. Lackner, F. Winter, R. Shau, J. Rosskopf, M. Ortsiefer, and M. C. Amann, Appl. Phys. B 76, 603 (2003).

Pérez-Camacho, J. J.

V. Weldon, J. O'Gorman, J. J. Pérez-Camacho, D. McDonald, J. Hegarty, J. C. Connolly, N. A. Morris, R. U. Martinelli, and J. H. Abeles, Infrared Phys. Technol. 38, 325 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Riemenschneider, F.

B. Kögel, M. Maute, H. Halbritter, F. Riemenschneider, G. Böhm, M. C. Amann, and P. Meissner, J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8, 370 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rosskopf, J.

G. Totschnig, M. Lackner, F. Winter, R. Shau, J. Rosskopf, M. Ortsiefer, and M. C. Amann, Appl. Phys. B 76, 603 (2003).

Rothman, L.

L. Rothman, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 60, 665 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shau, R.

G. Totschnig, M. Lackner, F. Winter, R. Shau, J. Rosskopf, M. Ortsiefer, and M. C. Amann, Appl. Phys. B 76, 603 (2003).

Totschnig, G.

G. Totschnig, M. Lackner, F. Winter, R. Shau, J. Rosskopf, M. Ortsiefer, and M. C. Amann, Appl. Phys. B 76, 603 (2003).

Weldon, V.

V. Weldon, J. O'Gorman, J. J. Pérez-Camacho, D. McDonald, J. Hegarty, J. C. Connolly, N. A. Morris, R. U. Martinelli, and J. H. Abeles, Infrared Phys. Technol. 38, 325 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Winter, F.

G. Totschnig, M. Lackner, F. Winter, R. Shau, J. Rosskopf, M. Ortsiefer, and M. C. Amann, Appl. Phys. B 76, 603 (2003).

Appl. Phys. B (1)

G. Totschnig, M. Lackner, F. Winter, R. Shau, J. Rosskopf, M. Ortsiefer, and M. C. Amann, Appl. Phys. B 76, 603 (2003).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

M. Maute, B. Kögel, G. Böhm, P. Meissner, and M. C. Amann, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 688 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Infrared Phys. Technol. (1)

V. Weldon, J. O'Gorman, J. J. Pérez-Camacho, D. McDonald, J. Hegarty, J. C. Connolly, N. A. Morris, R. U. Martinelli, and J. H. Abeles, Infrared Phys. Technol. 38, 325 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

B. Kögel, M. Maute, H. Halbritter, F. Riemenschneider, G. Böhm, M. C. Amann, and P. Meissner, J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8, 370 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. (1)

L. Rothman, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 60, 665 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

B. Kögel, H. Halbritter, M. Maute, G. Böhm, M. C. Amann, and P. Meissner, presented at European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), September 24-28, 2006.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic cross-section of the MEMS-tunable VCSEL.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup. FG, function generator; BS, beam splitter; P, pressure sensor; T, thermocouple. The quartz cell is 0.435 m long.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Raw signal with and without absorbing gas and etalon trace. Experimental conditions are CO at 24 ° C , 1 bar (0.1 MPa), wavelength tuning from 1538 to 1584 nm. The depicted tuning range is 46 nm ( 189 cm 1 ) .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectrum of (top) CO 2 and (bottom) model calculation. Experimental conditions are 291 K , 43.5 cm , 1 bar (0.1 MPa), pure CO 2 . The depicted tuning range is 17 nm ( 67 cm 1 ) .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spectrum of (top) CO and (bottom) model calculation. Experimental conditions are 291 K , 43.5 cm , 1 bar (0.1 MPa), pure CO . The depicted tuning range is 27 nm ( 110 cm 1 ) .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spectra of CO at pressures from (top) 1 bar (0.1 MPa) to (bottom) 3 bars (0.3 MPa). Experimental conditions are 291 K , 43.5 cm , pure CO . The depicted tuning range is 27 nm ( 110 cm 1 ) .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Individual CO 2 peak and Lorentzian fit. 291 K , 43.5 cm , 1 bar (0.1 MPa), pure CO 2 .

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Comparison of the MEMS-VCSEL to Other Laser Light Sources for Spectroscopy

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