Abstract

Surface-stabilized orthoconic antiferroelectric liquid crystals (OAFLCs) have a director tilt of θ=45° and are, with no field applied, negatively uniaxial with the optic axis perpendicular to the cell substrates. We demonstrate that OAFLCs can be utilized to achieve lossless phase modulation with three almost equidistant phase levels. This turns out to be true also for polymer-stabilized OAFLCs, where the polymer network increases the switching speed of the device without affecting the phase modulation appreciably.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. C. Dayton, S. L. Browne, S. P. Sandren, J. D. Gonglewski, and A. V. Kudryashov, Appl. Opt. 37, 5579 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Reicherter, T. Haist, E. Wagemann, and H. Tiziani, Opt. Lett. 24, 608 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. N. A. Clark and S. T. Lagerwall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 899 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. E. Stockley, G. D. Sharp, S. A. Serati, and K. M. Johnson, Opt. Lett. 20, 2441 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. Engström, P. Rudquist, J. Bengtsson, K. D'havé, and S. Galt, Appl. Opt. 45, 5258 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. D. Engström, P. Rudquist, J. Bengtsson, K. D'havé, and S. Galt, Opt. Lett. 31, 2906 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. B. Golovin, S. V. Shiyanovskii, and O. D. Lavrentovich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3864 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. D'havé, A. Dahlgren, P. Rudquist, J. P. F. Lagerwall, G. Andersson, M. Matuszczyk, S. T. Lagerwall, R. Dabrowski, and W. Drzewinski, Ferroelectrics 244, 415 (2000).
  9. For moderate biefringence (no2+ne2)/2 is very close to the mean value (no+ne)/2. Simulations for no E [1,2] and no < ne < no + 0.3 showed that the difference between the exact expression and the mean value is less than 1%.
  10. P. Rudquist, D. Elfström, S. T. Lagerwall, and R. Dabrowski, "Polymer stabilized antiferroelectric liquid crystals," Ferroelectrics (to be published).
  11. I. Abdulhalim, J. Appl. Phys. 93, 4930 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. V. Vorflusev and S. Kumar, Science 283, 1903 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

2003

A. B. Golovin, S. V. Shiyanovskii, and O. D. Lavrentovich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3864 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. Abdulhalim, J. Appl. Phys. 93, 4930 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000

K. D'havé, A. Dahlgren, P. Rudquist, J. P. F. Lagerwall, G. Andersson, M. Matuszczyk, S. T. Lagerwall, R. Dabrowski, and W. Drzewinski, Ferroelectrics 244, 415 (2000).

1999

1998

1995

1980

N. A. Clark and S. T. Lagerwall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 899 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Abdulhalim, I.

I. Abdulhalim, J. Appl. Phys. 93, 4930 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Andersson, G.

K. D'havé, A. Dahlgren, P. Rudquist, J. P. F. Lagerwall, G. Andersson, M. Matuszczyk, S. T. Lagerwall, R. Dabrowski, and W. Drzewinski, Ferroelectrics 244, 415 (2000).

Bengtsson, J.

Browne, S. L.

Clark, N. A.

N. A. Clark and S. T. Lagerwall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 899 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Dabrowski, R.

K. D'havé, A. Dahlgren, P. Rudquist, J. P. F. Lagerwall, G. Andersson, M. Matuszczyk, S. T. Lagerwall, R. Dabrowski, and W. Drzewinski, Ferroelectrics 244, 415 (2000).

P. Rudquist, D. Elfström, S. T. Lagerwall, and R. Dabrowski, "Polymer stabilized antiferroelectric liquid crystals," Ferroelectrics (to be published).

Dahlgren, A.

K. D'havé, A. Dahlgren, P. Rudquist, J. P. F. Lagerwall, G. Andersson, M. Matuszczyk, S. T. Lagerwall, R. Dabrowski, and W. Drzewinski, Ferroelectrics 244, 415 (2000).

Dayton, D. C.

D'havé, K.

D. Engström, P. Rudquist, J. Bengtsson, K. D'havé, and S. Galt, Appl. Opt. 45, 5258 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Engström, P. Rudquist, J. Bengtsson, K. D'havé, and S. Galt, Opt. Lett. 31, 2906 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. D'havé, A. Dahlgren, P. Rudquist, J. P. F. Lagerwall, G. Andersson, M. Matuszczyk, S. T. Lagerwall, R. Dabrowski, and W. Drzewinski, Ferroelectrics 244, 415 (2000).

Drzewinski, W.

K. D'havé, A. Dahlgren, P. Rudquist, J. P. F. Lagerwall, G. Andersson, M. Matuszczyk, S. T. Lagerwall, R. Dabrowski, and W. Drzewinski, Ferroelectrics 244, 415 (2000).

Elfström, D.

P. Rudquist, D. Elfström, S. T. Lagerwall, and R. Dabrowski, "Polymer stabilized antiferroelectric liquid crystals," Ferroelectrics (to be published).

Engström, D.

Galt, S.

Golovin, A. B.

A. B. Golovin, S. V. Shiyanovskii, and O. D. Lavrentovich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3864 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gonglewski, J. D.

Haist, T.

Johnson, K. M.

Kudryashov, A. V.

Kumar, S.

V. Vorflusev and S. Kumar, Science 283, 1903 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lagerwall, J. P. F.

K. D'havé, A. Dahlgren, P. Rudquist, J. P. F. Lagerwall, G. Andersson, M. Matuszczyk, S. T. Lagerwall, R. Dabrowski, and W. Drzewinski, Ferroelectrics 244, 415 (2000).

Lagerwall, S. T.

K. D'havé, A. Dahlgren, P. Rudquist, J. P. F. Lagerwall, G. Andersson, M. Matuszczyk, S. T. Lagerwall, R. Dabrowski, and W. Drzewinski, Ferroelectrics 244, 415 (2000).

N. A. Clark and S. T. Lagerwall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 899 (1980).
[CrossRef]

P. Rudquist, D. Elfström, S. T. Lagerwall, and R. Dabrowski, "Polymer stabilized antiferroelectric liquid crystals," Ferroelectrics (to be published).

Lavrentovich, O. D.

A. B. Golovin, S. V. Shiyanovskii, and O. D. Lavrentovich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3864 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Matuszczyk, M.

K. D'havé, A. Dahlgren, P. Rudquist, J. P. F. Lagerwall, G. Andersson, M. Matuszczyk, S. T. Lagerwall, R. Dabrowski, and W. Drzewinski, Ferroelectrics 244, 415 (2000).

Reicherter, M.

Rudquist, P.

D. Engström, P. Rudquist, J. Bengtsson, K. D'havé, and S. Galt, Appl. Opt. 45, 5258 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Engström, P. Rudquist, J. Bengtsson, K. D'havé, and S. Galt, Opt. Lett. 31, 2906 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. D'havé, A. Dahlgren, P. Rudquist, J. P. F. Lagerwall, G. Andersson, M. Matuszczyk, S. T. Lagerwall, R. Dabrowski, and W. Drzewinski, Ferroelectrics 244, 415 (2000).

P. Rudquist, D. Elfström, S. T. Lagerwall, and R. Dabrowski, "Polymer stabilized antiferroelectric liquid crystals," Ferroelectrics (to be published).

Sandren, S. P.

Serati, S. A.

Sharp, G. D.

Shiyanovskii, S. V.

A. B. Golovin, S. V. Shiyanovskii, and O. D. Lavrentovich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3864 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stockley, J. E.

Tiziani, H.

Vorflusev, V.

V. Vorflusev and S. Kumar, Science 283, 1903 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wagemann, E.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

N. A. Clark and S. T. Lagerwall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 899 (1980).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Golovin, S. V. Shiyanovskii, and O. D. Lavrentovich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3864 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ferroelectrics

K. D'havé, A. Dahlgren, P. Rudquist, J. P. F. Lagerwall, G. Andersson, M. Matuszczyk, S. T. Lagerwall, R. Dabrowski, and W. Drzewinski, Ferroelectrics 244, 415 (2000).

J. Appl. Phys.

I. Abdulhalim, J. Appl. Phys. 93, 4930 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Science

V. Vorflusev and S. Kumar, Science 283, 1903 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

For moderate biefringence (no2+ne2)/2 is very close to the mean value (no+ne)/2. Simulations for no E [1,2] and no < ne < no + 0.3 showed that the difference between the exact expression and the mean value is less than 1%.

P. Rudquist, D. Elfström, S. T. Lagerwall, and R. Dabrowski, "Polymer stabilized antiferroelectric liquid crystals," Ferroelectrics (to be published).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Orientation of a surface-stabilized AFLC for (a) positive, (b) zero, and (c) negative applied fields. Cell substrates are parallel to the paper, and the smectic layer normal is along y ̂ .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

OAFLC cell placed between two polarizers.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simulated intensity transmittance through an AFLC cell placed between two polarizers. Shown are the two driven states (dashed and dotted curves) and the off state (solid curves). The two curve sets correspond to parallel and perpendicular polarizers. Parameters: θ = 40 ° , n e = 1.60 , n o = 1.50 , d = 0.9 μ m , and λ = 543.5 nm .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a), (b) Measured transmitted intensity modulation for the OAFLC and the POAFLC 2 cells placed between parallel (upper set of curves) and perpendicular (lower set of curves) polarizers, respectively. (c), (d) The data in (a) and (b) have been normalized such that for each state of the cell I + I = 1 . The solid, dashed, and dotted curves correspond to the off-state, the positive, and negative driven states, respectively.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Measured Parameters and Spacer Diameter d s

Equations (3)

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n x , off = ( n e sin θ ) 2 + ( n o cos θ ) 2 ,
n y , off = ( n e cos θ ) 2 + ( n o sin θ ) 2 ,
E out = W p ( 0 ° ) W wp ( α + α AFLC , Γ ) W p ( 90 ° ) E in = [ 0 0 i sin ( 2 ( α + α AFLC ) ) sin ( Γ 2 ) 0 ] E in ,

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