Abstract

Free-space optics (FSO) can provide cost-effective, high-bandwidth, wireless connections. However, atmospheric turbulence may degrade the performance of FSO links by causing intensity and power scintillations at the receiver. Multicanonical Monte Carlo sampling is used in conjunction with the phase screen method to calculate the statistics, and particularly the probability density function (PDF), of the power fluctuations at an FSO receiver. This allows the efficient calculation of the PDF even for very small values with a limited number of iterations. The obtained PDF can be used to characterize the performance of the system in terms of the error probability.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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2005 (2)

J. A. Anguita, I. B. Djordjevic, M. A. Neifeld, and B. V. Vasic, JOM 4, 586 (2005).

I. Neokosmidis, T. Kamalakis, A. Chipouras, and T. Sphicopoulos, Opt. Lett. 30, 11 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

D. Kedar and S. Arnon, IEEE Commun. Mag. 42, 2 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

2002 (1)

D. Yevick, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1512 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. A. Al-Habash, L. C. Andrews, and R. L. Phillips, Opt. Eng. 40, 1554 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1992 (1)

L. C. Andrews, J. Mod. Opt. 39, 1849 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1988 (1)

1985 (1)

1967 (1)

Al-Habash, M. A.

M. A. Al-Habash, L. C. Andrews, and R. L. Phillips, Opt. Eng. 40, 1554 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, L. C.

M. A. Al-Habash, L. C. Andrews, and R. L. Phillips, Opt. Eng. 40, 1554 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Andrews, J. Mod. Opt. 39, 1849 (1992).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Andrews and R. L. Phillips, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 160 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Anguita, J. A.

J. A. Anguita, I. B. Djordjevic, M. A. Neifeld, and B. V. Vasic, JOM 4, 586 (2005).

Arnon, S.

D. Kedar and S. Arnon, IEEE Commun. Mag. 42, 2 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bracher, C.

Chan, V. W. S.

Chipouras, A.

Chlestil, Ch.

E. Leitgeb, S. Sheikh Muhammad, Ch. Chlestil, M. Gebhart, G. Kandus, and T. Javornik, presented at the 9th World Multiconference on Systems, Cybernetics and Informatics, Orlando, Fla., July 10-13, 2005.

Djordjevic, I. B.

J. A. Anguita, I. B. Djordjevic, M. A. Neifeld, and B. V. Vasic, JOM 4, 586 (2005).

Flatté, S. M.

Fried, D. L.

Gebhart, M.

E. Leitgeb, S. Sheikh Muhammad, Ch. Chlestil, M. Gebhart, G. Kandus, and T. Javornik, presented at the 9th World Multiconference on Systems, Cybernetics and Informatics, Orlando, Fla., July 10-13, 2005.

Hozhonner, R.

Javornik, T.

E. Leitgeb, S. Sheikh Muhammad, Ch. Chlestil, M. Gebhart, G. Kandus, and T. Javornik, presented at the 9th World Multiconference on Systems, Cybernetics and Informatics, Orlando, Fla., July 10-13, 2005.

Kamalakis, T.

Kandus, G.

E. Leitgeb, S. Sheikh Muhammad, Ch. Chlestil, M. Gebhart, G. Kandus, and T. Javornik, presented at the 9th World Multiconference on Systems, Cybernetics and Informatics, Orlando, Fla., July 10-13, 2005.

Kedar, D.

D. Kedar and S. Arnon, IEEE Commun. Mag. 42, 2 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Leitgeb, E.

E. Leitgeb, S. Sheikh Muhammad, Ch. Chlestil, M. Gebhart, G. Kandus, and T. Javornik, presented at the 9th World Multiconference on Systems, Cybernetics and Informatics, Orlando, Fla., July 10-13, 2005.

Martin, J. M.

Menyuk, C. R.

Muhammad, S. Sheikh

E. Leitgeb, S. Sheikh Muhammad, Ch. Chlestil, M. Gebhart, G. Kandus, and T. Javornik, presented at the 9th World Multiconference on Systems, Cybernetics and Informatics, Orlando, Fla., July 10-13, 2005.

Neifeld, M. A.

J. A. Anguita, I. B. Djordjevic, M. A. Neifeld, and B. V. Vasic, JOM 4, 586 (2005).

Neokosmidis, I.

Perlot, N.

N. Perlot, "Caractérisation des fluctuations du signal dans les communications optiques par modulation d'intensité et détection directe à travers le canal atmosphérique turbulent," Ph.D. thesis (L'Université de Valenciennes et du Hainaut-Cambrésis, 2005).

Phillips, R. L.

M. A. Al-Habash, L. C. Andrews, and R. L. Phillips, Opt. Eng. 40, 1554 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Andrews and R. L. Phillips, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 160 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Sphicopoulos, T.

Vasic, B. V.

J. A. Anguita, I. B. Djordjevic, M. A. Neifeld, and B. V. Vasic, JOM 4, 586 (2005).

Wang, G.-Y.

Yevick, D.

D. Yevick, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1512 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

D. Kedar and S. Arnon, IEEE Commun. Mag. 42, 2 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

D. Yevick, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1512 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

L. C. Andrews, J. Mod. Opt. 39, 1849 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

JOM (1)

J. A. Anguita, I. B. Djordjevic, M. A. Neifeld, and B. V. Vasic, JOM 4, 586 (2005).

Opt. Eng. (1)

M. A. Al-Habash, L. C. Andrews, and R. L. Phillips, Opt. Eng. 40, 1554 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (2)

E. Leitgeb, S. Sheikh Muhammad, Ch. Chlestil, M. Gebhart, G. Kandus, and T. Javornik, presented at the 9th World Multiconference on Systems, Cybernetics and Informatics, Orlando, Fla., July 10-13, 2005.

N. Perlot, "Caractérisation des fluctuations du signal dans les communications optiques par modulation d'intensité et détection directe à travers le canal atmosphérique turbulent," Ph.D. thesis (L'Université de Valenciennes et du Hainaut-Cambrésis, 2005).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Comparison of the (a) amplitude and (b) phase in the absence of turbulence by using Eq. (1) and the phase screen method.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Inner scale factor F 0 ( k k s ) e k 2 k s 2 and outer scale factor ( k 2 + k l 2 ) 1 as a function of k.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of the PDF computed by using the log-normal distribution and the MCMC sampling method for (a) C n 2 = 10 14 m 2 3 and (b) C n 2 = 10 15 m 2 3 .

Equations (2)

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ψ ( x , y , z ) = ( 1 + 2 j Z W 0 2 ) 1 e ρ 2 W z 2 ,
Φ n ( k x , k y , k z ) = 0.033 C n 2 ( k 2 + k l 2 ) 1 F 0 ( k k s ) e k 2 k s 2 .

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