Abstract

We investigate the comb linewidths of self-referenced, fiber-laser-based frequency combs by measuring the heterodyne beat signal between two independent frequency combs that are phase locked to a common cw optical reference. We demonstrate that the optical comb lines can exhibit instrument-limited, subhertz relative linewidths across the comb spectra from 1200to1720nm with a residual integrated optical phase jitter of 1rad in a 60mHzto500kHz bandwidth. The projected relative pulse timing jitter is 1fs. This performance approaches that of Ti:sapphire frequency combs.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2006 (2)

2005 (6)

2004 (5)

2002 (1)

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, Nature 416, 233 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

1975 (1)

F. L. Walls and A. DeMarchi, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-24, 210 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Adel, P.

Adler, F.

Amy-Klein, A.

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartels, A.

Benkler, E.

Bize, S.

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chambon, D.

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chardonnet, C.

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clairon, A.

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cundiff, S. T.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Daussy, C.

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DeMarchi, A.

F. L. Walls and A. DeMarchi, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-24, 210 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Diddams, S. A.

Doerr, C. R.

Feder, K. S.

Fejer, M. M.

I. Hartl, G. Imshev, M. E. Fermann, C. Langrock, and M. M. Fejer, Opt. Express 13, 6490 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Hartl, M. E. Fermann, C. Langrock, and M. M. Fejer, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, CLEO 2006 (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CTuH4.

Fermann, M. E.

Goncharov, A.

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grosche, G.

Guinet, M.

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hall, J. L.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hänsch, T. W.

Hartl, I.

Haus, H. A.

Haverkamp, N.

Hollberg, L.

Holman, K. W.

Holzwarth, R.

Hong, F.-L.

Hudson, D. D.

Hundertmark, H.

Imshev, G.

Inaba, H.

Ippen, E. P.

Jones, D. J.

K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, J. Ye, and D. J. Jones, Opt. Lett. 30, 1225 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jørgensen, C. G.

Kubina, P.

Langrock, C.

I. Hartl, G. Imshev, M. E. Fermann, C. Langrock, and M. M. Fejer, Opt. Express 13, 6490 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Hartl, M. E. Fermann, C. Langrock, and M. M. Fejer, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, CLEO 2006 (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CTuH4.

Leitenstorfer, A.

Lipphardt, B.

Lopez, O.

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lours, M.

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luiten, A. N.

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsumoto, H.

McFerran, J. J.

Minoshima, K.

Narbonneau, F.

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nelson, L. E.

Newbury, N. R.

Nicholson, J. W.

Oates, C. W.

Onae, A.

Ranka, J. K.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Santarelli, G.

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schibli, T. R.

Schnatz, H.

Stentz, A.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swann, W. C.

Tamura, K.

Tauser, F.

Telle, H. R.

Tobar, M. E.

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Udem, T.

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, Nature 416, 233 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walls, F. L.

F. L. Walls and A. DeMarchi, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-24, 210 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Wandt, D.

Washburn, B. R.

Westbrook, P. S.

Windeler, R. S.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yablon, A. D.

Yan, M. F.

Ye, J.

Zach, A.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

N. R. Newbury and B. R. Washburn, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1388 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (1)

F. L. Walls and A. DeMarchi, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-24, 210 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, Nature 416, 233 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (8)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

I. Hartl, M. E. Fermann, C. Langrock, and M. M. Fejer, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, CLEO 2006 (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CTuH4.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the experimental setup. FC, fiber coupler. Inset, spectra of comb 1 (gray) and comb 2 (black). Arrows indicate the location of the different optical bandpass filter settings for the heterodyne measurements. (b) Comb 1 (top) and comb 2 (bottom), along with the cw reference laser at 1550 nm ( 194 THz ) . The circled pairs contribute to the beat note at 8 MHz . (The number of contributing pairs is 400 4000 , depending on the filter bandwidth.)

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) In-loop phase noise spectral densities for the lock between the cw reference laser and comb 1 (gray) and comb 2 (black). The integrated phase noise of 0.94 and 0.35 rad , respectively, is dominated by the servo bumps at high Fourier frequencies. Extrapolation to the Nyquist frequencies of 92.5 and 25 MHz for the two combs gives integrated phase noises of 0.53 and 1.21 rad . (b) In-loop phase noise for f ceo for comb 1 (gray) and comb 2 (black). The integrated phase noises are 1.5 and 1.0 rad , respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectra of the coherent peak across the comb and on f beat , i between the combs and the cw reference laser (resolution bandwidth (RBW) of 0.3 Hz , acquisition time 48 s ). Inset, rf spectra on a 1 MHz span and log scale for the heterodyne beat at 1720 nm ( RBW = 3 kHz ) .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Phase noise PSDs at λ = 1200 , 1300 , 1400 , 1540 , 1580 , 1720 nm (top to bottom). The PSDs above 1200 nm are offset by 10 dB from each other for viewing clarity. (b) Comparison of the measured (solid curve) and predicted (dotted curve) phase noise PSD at 1720 nm , which are basically indistinguishable. Also shown is the integrated phase noise, δ φ ν (dashed curve, right axis), which reaches 0.9 rad . Extending the white-phase-noise floor to 25 MHz yields a residual phase jitter of 1.03 rad . (c) Measured (squares) and predicted (curve) integrated phase jitter, δ φ λ , versus wavelength.

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