Abstract

We report the application of a cw distributed feedback quantum cascade laser to Lamb-dip spectroscopy of CO2 at 4.3μm. With the laser operating in the free-running mode, we observed the sub-Doppler profile of the P(28) line of the (0,11,0)(0,11,1) hot band by implementing a pump–probe scheme and using wavelength modulation spectroscopy for highly sensitive detection of saturated absorption signals. We investigated the main limitations to the observation of a narrow resonance, with particular attention to the effect of the laser current noise. We determined the intrinsic laser emission width, which was found to be approximately 3.4MHz (FWHM) for an observation time of 200ms.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, T. Aellen, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, and H. Melchior, Science 295, 301 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  7. The HITRAN database can be found at http://www.hitran.com.
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    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Yamamoto, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 34 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. Totschnig, F. Winter, V. Pustogov, J. Faist, and A. Müller, Opt. Lett. 27, 1788 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. Temporão, S. Tanzilli, H. Zbinden, N. Gisin, T. Aellen, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, Opt. Lett. 31, 1094 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

J. S. Yu, S. R. Darvish, A. Evans, J. Nguyen, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Temporão, S. Tanzilli, H. Zbinden, N. Gisin, T. Aellen, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, Opt. Lett. 31, 1094 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

2002

M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, T. Aellen, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, and H. Melchior, Science 295, 301 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Totschnig, F. Winter, V. Pustogov, J. Faist, and A. Müller, Opt. Lett. 27, 1788 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

P. Kluczynski, J. Gustafsson, A. M. Lindberg, and O. Axner, Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 56, 1277 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

1983

Y. Yamamoto, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 34 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Aellen, T.

G. Temporão, S. Tanzilli, H. Zbinden, N. Gisin, T. Aellen, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, Opt. Lett. 31, 1094 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, T. Aellen, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, and H. Melchior, Science 295, 301 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Axner, O.

P. Kluczynski, J. Gustafsson, A. M. Lindberg, and O. Axner, Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 56, 1277 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Baillargeon, J. N.

Beck, M.

M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, T. Aellen, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, and H. Melchior, Science 295, 301 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cancio, P.

Capasso, F.

Cho, A. Y.

Darvish, S. R.

J. S. Yu, S. R. Darvish, A. Evans, J. Nguyen, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

De Natale, P.

Evans, A.

J. S. Yu, S. R. Darvish, A. Evans, J. Nguyen, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Faist, J.

Fort, C.

Gini, E.

M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, T. Aellen, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, and H. Melchior, Science 295, 301 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giovannini, M.

Gisin, N.

Giusfredi, G.

Gmachl, C.

Gustafsson, J.

P. Kluczynski, J. Gustafsson, A. M. Lindberg, and O. Axner, Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 56, 1277 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hofstetter, D.

M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, T. Aellen, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, and H. Melchior, Science 295, 301 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hollberg, L.

Hutchinson, A. L.

Ilegems, M.

M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, T. Aellen, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, and H. Melchior, Science 295, 301 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kluczynski, P.

P. Kluczynski, J. Gustafsson, A. M. Lindberg, and O. Axner, Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 56, 1277 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Letokhov, V. S.

V. S. Letokhov, "Saturation spectroscopy" in High-Resolution Laser Spectroscopy, K.Shimoda, ed. (Springer, 1976), pp. 96-171.

Lindberg, A. M.

P. Kluczynski, J. Gustafsson, A. M. Lindberg, and O. Axner, Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 56, 1277 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mazzotti, D.

Melchior, H.

M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, T. Aellen, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, and H. Melchior, Science 295, 301 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mitchell, J. A.

Müller, A.

Nguyen, J.

J. S. Yu, S. R. Darvish, A. Evans, J. Nguyen, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Oesterle, U.

M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, T. Aellen, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, and H. Melchior, Science 295, 301 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prevedelli, M.

Pustogov, V.

Razeghi, M.

J. S. Yu, S. R. Darvish, A. Evans, J. Nguyen, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Remillard, J. T.

Sivco, D. L.

Slivken, S.

J. S. Yu, S. R. Darvish, A. Evans, J. Nguyen, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tanzilli, S.

Temporão, G.

Totschnig, G.

Uy, D.

Weber, W. H.

Winter, F.

Yamamoto, Y.

Y. Yamamoto, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 34 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J. S.

J. S. Yu, S. R. Darvish, A. Evans, J. Nguyen, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zbinden, H.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. S. Yu, S. R. Darvish, A. Evans, J. Nguyen, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

Y. Yamamoto, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 34 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Science

M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, T. Aellen, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, and H. Melchior, Science 295, 301 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spectrochim. Acta, Part B

P. Kluczynski, J. Gustafsson, A. M. Lindberg, and O. Axner, Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 56, 1277 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other

V. S. Letokhov, "Saturation spectroscopy" in High-Resolution Laser Spectroscopy, K.Shimoda, ed. (Springer, 1976), pp. 96-171.

The HITRAN database can be found at http://www.hitran.com.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Sketch of the experimental setup. D, detector; PG, 10   Torr absolute pressure gauge; BS, beam splitter; SM, spherical mirror. L1 and L2 are 2 in. diameter Ca F 2 lenses, with a 50 and 200 mm focal length, respectively. L3 and L4 are 1 in. diameter ZnSe lenses, with focal lengths of 50 and 100 mm , respectively. All the optical components had an antireflective coating at 4.3 μ m to avoid unwanted backreflections. A homemade beam profiler, not indicated in the figure, was used to determine the beam size in several points along the path of the laser.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Saturated absorption spectrum of the C O 2 P ( 28 ) line recorded by means of the WMS with first-harmonic detection. (b) Direct-absorption recording of the saturated-absorption spectrum, showing the Lamb dip in the center of the Doppler-broadened profile.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

WMS spectrum, with second-harmonic detection, of the saturated absorption signal and overlaid theoretical fit based on the formalism of Kluczynski et al. (Ref. [8]). Fit residuals are shown by the lower curve.

Equations (1)

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I S ( W m 2 ) = ε 0 c 2 ( c p p + α 0 ) 2 × 10 12 2 μ 2 ,

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