Abstract

We describe buffered Fourier domain mode locking (FDML), a technique for tailoring the output and multiplying the sweep rate of FDML lasers. Buffered FDML can be used to create unidirectional wavelength sweeps from the normal bidirectional sweeps in an FDML laser without sacrificing sweep rate. We also investigate the role of the laser source in dynamic range versus sensitivity performance in optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging. Unidirectional sweep rates of 370kHz over a 100nm range at a center wavelength of 1300nm are achieved. High-speed, swept-source OCT is demonstrated at record speeds of up to 370,000 axial scans per second.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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2006 (2)

W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, B. J. Vakoc, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 103902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Express 14, 3225 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (6)

2003 (3)

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akiba, M.

Biomed, J.

M. A. Choma, K. Hsu, and J. A. Izatt, J. Biomed, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044009 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Boudoux, C.

Bouma, B. E.

Cable, A. E.

Chan, K.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z. P.

Choma, M. A.

M. A. Choma, K. Hsu, and J. A. Izatt, J. Biomed, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044009 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Choma, M. V. Sarunic, C. Yang, and J. Izatt, Opt. Express 11, 2183 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chong, C.

de Boer, J. F.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Express 14, 3225 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, K. Taira, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, in Proc. SPIE 5861, 245 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Y. Jiang, and A. E. Cable, Opt. Express 13, 10523 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, K. Taira, J. G. Fujimoto, and K. Hsu, Opt. Express 13, 3513 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsu, K.

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, K. Taira, J. G. Fujimoto, and K. Hsu, Opt. Express 13, 3513 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Choma, K. Hsu, and J. A. Izatt, J. Biomed, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044009 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huber, R.

Iftimia, N.

Itoh, M.

Izatt, J.

Izatt, J. A.

M. A. Choma, K. Hsu, and J. A. Izatt, J. Biomed, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044009 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, J. Y.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Madjarova, V.

Makita, S.

Morosawa, A.

Oh, W. Y.

W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, B. J. Vakoc, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 103902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sakai, T.

Sarunic, M. V.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taira, K.

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, K. Taira, J. G. Fujimoto, and K. Hsu, Opt. Express 13, 3513 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, K. Taira, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, in Proc. SPIE 5861, 245 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tearney, G. J.

Vakoc, B. J.

W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, B. J. Vakoc, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 103902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wojtkowski, M.

Yang, C.

Yasuno, Y.

Yatagai, T.

Yun, S. H.

Zhang, J.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Left, schematic of FDML laser for 185 kHz drive frequency and 370 kHz sweep frequency. Right, transient output power of the laser.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

OCT PSFs at different imaging depths for forward sweeps (left) and backward sweeps (right). Peak values represent sensitivity.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dynamic range at different imaging depths for standard FDML (left) and buffered FDML (right).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Left, fringe signals for standard FDML (top) and buffered FDML (bottom). Right, experimental setup for buffered FDML.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

OCT images acquired with buffered FDML at 370,000   sweeps s . Left, images with 8   bit A/D resolution (top) and 14   bit resolution (bottom). Right, rendered 3D OCT data ( 512 × 200 × 512   pixels ) .

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