Abstract

We report significant enhancement (+24dB) of the optical beat note between a 657 nm cw laser and the second-harmonic generation of the tailored continuum at 1314 nm generated with a femtosecond Cr:forsterite laser and a nonlinear fiber Bragg grating. The same continuum is used to stabilize the carrier-envelope offset frequency of the Cr:forsterite femtosecond laser and permits improved optical stabilization of the frequency comb from 1.0 to 2.2μm. Using a common optical reference at 657 nm, a relative fractional frequency instability of 2.0×1015 is achieved between the repetition rates of Cr:forsterite and Ti:sapphire laser systems in 10 s averaging time. The fractional frequency offset between the optically stabilized frequency combs of the Cr:forsterite and Ti:sapphire lasers is ±(0.024±6.1)×1017.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2005 (3)

2004 (2)

K. W. Holman, D. J. Jones, D. D. Hudson, and J. Ye, Opt. Lett. 29, 1554 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. S. Westbrook, J. W. Nicholson, K. S. Feder, Y. Li, and T. Brown, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4600 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

2002 (2)

2001 (1)

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stenz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Howe, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 47, 1102 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

B. J. Eggleton, T. Stephens, P. A. Krug, G. Dhosi, Z. Brodzeli, and F. Ouellette, Electron. Lett. 32, 1610 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Adel, P.

Adler, F.

Bartels, A.

Benkler, E.

Bergquist, J. C.

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brodzeli, Z.

B. J. Eggleton, T. Stephens, P. A. Krug, G. Dhosi, Z. Brodzeli, and F. Ouellette, Electron. Lett. 32, 1610 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Brown, T.

P. S. Westbrook, J. W. Nicholson, K. S. Feder, Y. Li, and T. Brown, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4600 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Calhoun, M.

M. Calhoun, R. Sydnor, and W. Diener, in Interplanetary Network Progress Rep. 42-148, Oct.-Dec. 2001 (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 2002), pp. 1-11.

Corwin, K. L.

Cundiff, S. T.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stenz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curtis, E. A.

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dhosi, G.

B. J. Eggleton, T. Stephens, P. A. Krug, G. Dhosi, Z. Brodzeli, and F. Ouellette, Electron. Lett. 32, 1610 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Diddams, S. A.

Diener, W.

M. Calhoun, R. Sydnor, and W. Diener, in Interplanetary Network Progress Rep. 42-148, Oct.-Dec. 2001 (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 2002), pp. 1-11.

DiMarcello, F.

Drullinger, R. E.

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eggleton, B. J.

B. J. Eggleton, T. Stephens, P. A. Krug, G. Dhosi, Z. Brodzeli, and F. Ouellette, Electron. Lett. 32, 1610 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Feder, K. S.

P. S. Westbrook, J. W. Nicholson, K. S. Feder, Y. Li, and T. Brown, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4600 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fleming, J.

Grosche, G.

Hall, J. L.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stenz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hänsch, T. W.

Hollberg, L.

Holman, K. W.

Holzwarth, R.

Howe, D. A.

D. A. Howe, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 47, 1102 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hudson, D. D.

Itano, W. M.

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, D. J.

K. W. Holman, D. J. Jones, D. D. Hudson, and J. Ye, Opt. Lett. 29, 1554 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stenz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jørgensen, C.

Kim, K.

Krug, P. A.

B. J. Eggleton, T. Stephens, P. A. Krug, G. Dhosi, Z. Brodzeli, and F. Ouellette, Electron. Lett. 32, 1610 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kubina, P.

Lee, W. D.

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leitenstorfer, A.

Li, Y.

P. S. Westbrook, J. W. Nicholson, K. S. Feder, Y. Li, and T. Brown, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4600 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lipphardt, B.

Monberg, E.

Newbury, N. R.

Nicholson, J. W.

Oates, C. W.

K. Kim, B. R. Washburn, G. Wilpers, C. W. Oates, L. Hollberg, N. R. Newbury, S. A. Diddams, J. W. Nicholson, and M. F. Yan, Opt. Lett. 30, 932 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ouellette, F.

B. J. Eggleton, T. Stephens, P. A. Krug, G. Dhosi, Z. Brodzeli, and F. Ouellette, Electron. Lett. 32, 1610 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ramond, T. M.

Ranka, J. K.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stenz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schnatz, H.

Stenz, A.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stenz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stephens, T.

B. J. Eggleton, T. Stephens, P. A. Krug, G. Dhosi, Z. Brodzeli, and F. Ouellette, Electron. Lett. 32, 1610 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sydnor, R.

M. Calhoun, R. Sydnor, and W. Diener, in Interplanetary Network Progress Rep. 42-148, Oct.-Dec. 2001 (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 2002), pp. 1-11.

Tauser, F.

Telle, H. R.

Thomann, I.

Udem, T.

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, Nature 416, 233 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Veng, T.

Vogel, K. R.

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Washburn, B. R.

Westbrook, P. S.

P. S. Westbrook, J. W. Nicholson, K. S. Feder, Y. Li, and T. Brown, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4600 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wilpers, G.

Windeler, R. S.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stenz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wineland, D. J.

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wisk, P.

Yablon, A.

Yan, M. F.

Ye, J.

Zach, A.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

P. S. Westbrook, J. W. Nicholson, K. S. Feder, Y. Li, and T. Brown, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4600 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

B. J. Eggleton, T. Stephens, P. A. Krug, G. Dhosi, Z. Brodzeli, and F. Ouellette, Electron. Lett. 32, 1610 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control (1)

D. A. Howe, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 47, 1102 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, Nature 416, 233 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Science (2)

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stenz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

M. Calhoun, R. Sydnor, and W. Diener, in Interplanetary Network Progress Rep. 42-148, Oct.-Dec. 2001 (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 2002), pp. 1-11.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Supercontinua generated using HNLFs with and without a grating. Inset, magnified spectra around the 1314 nm region. (b) Second-harmonic generation powers after frequency doubling of spectral components at 1314 nm using periodically poled LiNbO 3 . (c) Heterodyned optical beat notes obeserved between a stabilized 657 nm cw laser and the frequency-doubled comb element after HNLFs with and without a grating ( RBW = 30 kHz ) .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) (a) Relative fractional frequency instabilities of Δ f LD [ TiS CrF ] with H-maser and optical references. The instability of the H-maser is also given. (b) Schematic of the experimental setup to measure relative instability between the Cr:forsterite and the Ti:sapphire lasers using an optical reference. (c) A magnified graph of the 1 s gate time data shows the strong correlation between f LD CrF and f LD TiS . For visual clarity, we introduced an additional 400 Hz offset into f LD TiS .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Fractional offsets and uncertainties of Δ f LD [ TiS CrF ] depending on reference methods and gate times. Inset, magnified data. The number of data points in each measurement is also given.

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