Abstract

We present three-dimensional fluorescence yield tomography of a tissue phantom in a noncontact reflectance imaging setup. The method employs planar illumination with modulated light and frequency domain fluorescence measurements made on the illumination plane. An adaptive finite-element algorithm is used to handle the ill-posed and computationally demanding inverse image reconstruction problem. Tomographic images of fluorescent targets buried at 12cm depths from the illumination surface demonstrate the feasibility of fluorescence tomography from reflectance tomography in clinically relevant tissue volumes.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. Weissleder, C.-H. Tung, U. Mahmood, and A. Bogdanov, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 375 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Kim, Y. Lim, E. Soltesz, J. L. A. M. De Grand, A. Nakayama, J. A. Parker, T. Mihaljevic, R. G. Laurence, D. M. Dor, L. H. Cohn, M. G. Bawendi, and J. Frangioni, Nat. Biotechnol. 22, 93 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Godavarty, M. J. Eppstein, C. Zhang, S. Theru, A. B. Thompson, M. Gurfinkel, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 1701 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. Roy, A. Thompson, A. Godavarty, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24, 137 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. B. Thompson and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 111 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Joshi, W. Bangerth, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, Opt. Express 12, 5402 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. L. Jacques, J. R. Roman, and K. Lee, Lasers Surg. Med. 26, 119 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. W. Bangerth, R. Hartmann, and G. Kanschat, "deal.II: a finite element differential equations analysis library" (2005), http://www.dealii.org/.
  9. K. Hwang, J. Houston, J. Rasmussen, A. Joshi, S. Ke, C. Li, and E. Sevick-Muraca, J. Mol. Imaging 4, 194 (2005).

2005 (1)

R. Roy, A. Thompson, A. Godavarty, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24, 137 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

S. Kim, Y. Lim, E. Soltesz, J. L. A. M. De Grand, A. Nakayama, J. A. Parker, T. Mihaljevic, R. G. Laurence, D. M. Dor, L. H. Cohn, M. G. Bawendi, and J. Frangioni, Nat. Biotechnol. 22, 93 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Joshi, W. Bangerth, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, Opt. Express 12, 5402 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

A. Godavarty, M. J. Eppstein, C. Zhang, S. Theru, A. B. Thompson, M. Gurfinkel, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 1701 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

A. B. Thompson and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 111 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

S. L. Jacques, J. R. Roman, and K. Lee, Lasers Surg. Med. 26, 119 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

R. Weissleder, C.-H. Tung, U. Mahmood, and A. Bogdanov, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 375 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bangerth, W.

A. Joshi, W. Bangerth, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, Opt. Express 12, 5402 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Bangerth, R. Hartmann, and G. Kanschat, "deal.II: a finite element differential equations analysis library" (2005), http://www.dealii.org/.

Bawendi, M. G.

S. Kim, Y. Lim, E. Soltesz, J. L. A. M. De Grand, A. Nakayama, J. A. Parker, T. Mihaljevic, R. G. Laurence, D. M. Dor, L. H. Cohn, M. G. Bawendi, and J. Frangioni, Nat. Biotechnol. 22, 93 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bogdanov, A.

R. Weissleder, C.-H. Tung, U. Mahmood, and A. Bogdanov, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 375 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cohn, L. H.

S. Kim, Y. Lim, E. Soltesz, J. L. A. M. De Grand, A. Nakayama, J. A. Parker, T. Mihaljevic, R. G. Laurence, D. M. Dor, L. H. Cohn, M. G. Bawendi, and J. Frangioni, Nat. Biotechnol. 22, 93 (2004).
[CrossRef]

De Grand, J. L. A. M.

S. Kim, Y. Lim, E. Soltesz, J. L. A. M. De Grand, A. Nakayama, J. A. Parker, T. Mihaljevic, R. G. Laurence, D. M. Dor, L. H. Cohn, M. G. Bawendi, and J. Frangioni, Nat. Biotechnol. 22, 93 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dor, D. M.

S. Kim, Y. Lim, E. Soltesz, J. L. A. M. De Grand, A. Nakayama, J. A. Parker, T. Mihaljevic, R. G. Laurence, D. M. Dor, L. H. Cohn, M. G. Bawendi, and J. Frangioni, Nat. Biotechnol. 22, 93 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Eppstein, M. J.

A. Godavarty, M. J. Eppstein, C. Zhang, S. Theru, A. B. Thompson, M. Gurfinkel, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 1701 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frangioni, J.

S. Kim, Y. Lim, E. Soltesz, J. L. A. M. De Grand, A. Nakayama, J. A. Parker, T. Mihaljevic, R. G. Laurence, D. M. Dor, L. H. Cohn, M. G. Bawendi, and J. Frangioni, Nat. Biotechnol. 22, 93 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Godavarty, A.

R. Roy, A. Thompson, A. Godavarty, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24, 137 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Godavarty, M. J. Eppstein, C. Zhang, S. Theru, A. B. Thompson, M. Gurfinkel, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 1701 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gurfinkel, M.

A. Godavarty, M. J. Eppstein, C. Zhang, S. Theru, A. B. Thompson, M. Gurfinkel, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 1701 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hartmann, R.

W. Bangerth, R. Hartmann, and G. Kanschat, "deal.II: a finite element differential equations analysis library" (2005), http://www.dealii.org/.

Houston, J.

K. Hwang, J. Houston, J. Rasmussen, A. Joshi, S. Ke, C. Li, and E. Sevick-Muraca, J. Mol. Imaging 4, 194 (2005).

Hwang, K.

K. Hwang, J. Houston, J. Rasmussen, A. Joshi, S. Ke, C. Li, and E. Sevick-Muraca, J. Mol. Imaging 4, 194 (2005).

Jacques, S. L.

S. L. Jacques, J. R. Roman, and K. Lee, Lasers Surg. Med. 26, 119 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joshi, A.

A. Joshi, W. Bangerth, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, Opt. Express 12, 5402 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Hwang, J. Houston, J. Rasmussen, A. Joshi, S. Ke, C. Li, and E. Sevick-Muraca, J. Mol. Imaging 4, 194 (2005).

Kanschat, G.

W. Bangerth, R. Hartmann, and G. Kanschat, "deal.II: a finite element differential equations analysis library" (2005), http://www.dealii.org/.

Ke, S.

K. Hwang, J. Houston, J. Rasmussen, A. Joshi, S. Ke, C. Li, and E. Sevick-Muraca, J. Mol. Imaging 4, 194 (2005).

Kim, S.

S. Kim, Y. Lim, E. Soltesz, J. L. A. M. De Grand, A. Nakayama, J. A. Parker, T. Mihaljevic, R. G. Laurence, D. M. Dor, L. H. Cohn, M. G. Bawendi, and J. Frangioni, Nat. Biotechnol. 22, 93 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Laurence, R. G.

S. Kim, Y. Lim, E. Soltesz, J. L. A. M. De Grand, A. Nakayama, J. A. Parker, T. Mihaljevic, R. G. Laurence, D. M. Dor, L. H. Cohn, M. G. Bawendi, and J. Frangioni, Nat. Biotechnol. 22, 93 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.

S. L. Jacques, J. R. Roman, and K. Lee, Lasers Surg. Med. 26, 119 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, C.

K. Hwang, J. Houston, J. Rasmussen, A. Joshi, S. Ke, C. Li, and E. Sevick-Muraca, J. Mol. Imaging 4, 194 (2005).

Lim, Y.

S. Kim, Y. Lim, E. Soltesz, J. L. A. M. De Grand, A. Nakayama, J. A. Parker, T. Mihaljevic, R. G. Laurence, D. M. Dor, L. H. Cohn, M. G. Bawendi, and J. Frangioni, Nat. Biotechnol. 22, 93 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mahmood, U.

R. Weissleder, C.-H. Tung, U. Mahmood, and A. Bogdanov, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 375 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mihaljevic, T.

S. Kim, Y. Lim, E. Soltesz, J. L. A. M. De Grand, A. Nakayama, J. A. Parker, T. Mihaljevic, R. G. Laurence, D. M. Dor, L. H. Cohn, M. G. Bawendi, and J. Frangioni, Nat. Biotechnol. 22, 93 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nakayama, A.

S. Kim, Y. Lim, E. Soltesz, J. L. A. M. De Grand, A. Nakayama, J. A. Parker, T. Mihaljevic, R. G. Laurence, D. M. Dor, L. H. Cohn, M. G. Bawendi, and J. Frangioni, Nat. Biotechnol. 22, 93 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Parker, J. A.

S. Kim, Y. Lim, E. Soltesz, J. L. A. M. De Grand, A. Nakayama, J. A. Parker, T. Mihaljevic, R. G. Laurence, D. M. Dor, L. H. Cohn, M. G. Bawendi, and J. Frangioni, Nat. Biotechnol. 22, 93 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rasmussen, J.

K. Hwang, J. Houston, J. Rasmussen, A. Joshi, S. Ke, C. Li, and E. Sevick-Muraca, J. Mol. Imaging 4, 194 (2005).

Roman, J. R.

S. L. Jacques, J. R. Roman, and K. Lee, Lasers Surg. Med. 26, 119 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roy, R.

R. Roy, A. Thompson, A. Godavarty, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24, 137 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sevick-Muraca, E.

K. Hwang, J. Houston, J. Rasmussen, A. Joshi, S. Ke, C. Li, and E. Sevick-Muraca, J. Mol. Imaging 4, 194 (2005).

Sevick-Muraca, E. M.

R. Roy, A. Thompson, A. Godavarty, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24, 137 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Joshi, W. Bangerth, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, Opt. Express 12, 5402 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Godavarty, M. J. Eppstein, C. Zhang, S. Theru, A. B. Thompson, M. Gurfinkel, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 1701 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. B. Thompson and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 111 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Soltesz, E.

S. Kim, Y. Lim, E. Soltesz, J. L. A. M. De Grand, A. Nakayama, J. A. Parker, T. Mihaljevic, R. G. Laurence, D. M. Dor, L. H. Cohn, M. G. Bawendi, and J. Frangioni, Nat. Biotechnol. 22, 93 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Theru, S.

A. Godavarty, M. J. Eppstein, C. Zhang, S. Theru, A. B. Thompson, M. Gurfinkel, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 1701 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thompson, A.

R. Roy, A. Thompson, A. Godavarty, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24, 137 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thompson, A. B.

A. Godavarty, M. J. Eppstein, C. Zhang, S. Theru, A. B. Thompson, M. Gurfinkel, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 1701 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. B. Thompson and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 111 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tung, C.-H.

R. Weissleder, C.-H. Tung, U. Mahmood, and A. Bogdanov, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 375 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Weissleder, R.

R. Weissleder, C.-H. Tung, U. Mahmood, and A. Bogdanov, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 375 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C.

A. Godavarty, M. J. Eppstein, C. Zhang, S. Theru, A. B. Thompson, M. Gurfinkel, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 1701 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging (1)

R. Roy, A. Thompson, A. Godavarty, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24, 137 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

A. B. Thompson and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 111 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

S. L. Jacques, J. R. Roman, and K. Lee, Lasers Surg. Med. 26, 119 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Biotechnol. (2)

R. Weissleder, C.-H. Tung, U. Mahmood, and A. Bogdanov, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 375 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Kim, Y. Lim, E. Soltesz, J. L. A. M. De Grand, A. Nakayama, J. A. Parker, T. Mihaljevic, R. G. Laurence, D. M. Dor, L. H. Cohn, M. G. Bawendi, and J. Frangioni, Nat. Biotechnol. 22, 93 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

A. Godavarty, M. J. Eppstein, C. Zhang, S. Theru, A. B. Thompson, M. Gurfinkel, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 1701 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

W. Bangerth, R. Hartmann, and G. Kanschat, "deal.II: a finite element differential equations analysis library" (2005), http://www.dealii.org/.

K. Hwang, J. Houston, J. Rasmussen, A. Joshi, S. Ke, C. Li, and E. Sevick-Muraca, J. Mol. Imaging 4, 194 (2005).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

ICCD detection system. 1, CCD camera; 2, image intensifier; 3, 4, 5, optical filters; 6, 7, linear polarizers; 8, 785 nm laser diode; 9, 80 200 mm zoom lens; 10, tissue phantom; 11, fluorescent targets; 12, 13, phase-locked oscillators.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Reconstructed image (right) and the final fluorescence absorption map laid over the computational grid (left) for the 1 cm deep target. The top 10% of the contour levels of the μ a x f map are depicted. The black wireframe sphere in the right-hand image depicts the true target location, and the red blocks identify the recovered target.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Reconstructed image (right) and the final fluorescence absorption map laid over the computational grid (left) for the 2 cm deep target. The top 10% of the contour levels of the μ a x f map are depicted. The black wireframe sphere in the right-hand image depicts the true target location, and the red blocks identify the recovered target.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of Reconstructed Images

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

min q , u , v J ( q , v ) subject to A ( q ; [ u , v ] ) ( [ ζ , ξ ] ) = 0 .
J ( q , v ) = ( 1 2 ) v σ z Σ 2 + β r ( q ) ,
A ( q ; [ u , v ] ) ( [ ζ , ξ ] ) = ( D x u , ζ ) Ω + ( k x u , ζ ) Ω + γ 2 ( u , ζ ) Ω
+ 1 2 ( S , ζ ) Ω + ( D m v , ξ ) Ω
+ ( k m v , ξ ) Ω + γ 2 ( v , ξ ) Ω ( β x m u , ξ ) Ω .
L ( [ u , v ] , [ λ ex , λ em , q ] ) = J ( q , v ) + A ( q ; [ u , v ] ) ( [ λ ex , λ em ] ) .

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