Abstract

We present theoretical calculations, based on a random phasor sum model, which show that the optical coherence tomography speckle contrast ratio is dependent on the local density of scattering particles in a sample, provided that the effective number of scatterers in the probed volume is less than about five. We confirm these theoretical predictions experimentally, using suspensions of microspheres in water. The observed contrast ratios vary in value from the Rayleigh limit of 0.52 to in excess of 2, suggesting that the contrast ratio could be useful in optical coherence tomography, particularly when imaging in ultrahigh-resolution regimes.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J.C.Dainty, ed. Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, 2nd ed. (Springer, 1984).
  4. Y. Pan, R. Birngruber, J. Rosperich, and R. Engelhardt, Appl. Opt. 34, 6564 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. D. Sampson and T. R. Hillman, in Lasers and Current Optical Techniques in Biology, G.Palumbo and R.Pratesi, eds. (Royal Society of Chemistry, 2004).
  6. M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 565 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. D. A. Boas, K. K. Bizheva, and A. M. Siegel, Opt. Lett. 23, 319 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Imai and K. Tanaka, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 2007 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, C. Saxer, Q. Shen, S. Xiang, J. F. de Boer, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 25, 114 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. W. Gossage, T. S. Tkaczyk, J. J. Rodriguez, and J. K. Barton, J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 570 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley-Interscience, 1985).
  12. J. M. Schmitt and G. Kumar, Appl. Opt. 37, 2788 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. Abdi, H. Hashemi, and S. Nader-Esfahani, IEEE Trans. Commun. 48, 7 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  14. V. Tuchin, Tissue Optics (SPIE, 2000).

2003 (2)

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 565 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. W. Gossage, T. S. Tkaczyk, J. J. Rodriguez, and J. K. Barton, J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 570 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

1999 (2)

Y. Imai and K. Tanaka, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 2007 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

1995 (1)

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abdi, A.

A. Abdi, H. Hashemi, and S. Nader-Esfahani, IEEE Trans. Commun. 48, 7 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Barton, J. K.

K. W. Gossage, T. S. Tkaczyk, J. J. Rodriguez, and J. K. Barton, J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 570 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Birngruber, R.

Bizheva, K. K.

Boas, D. A.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

de Boer, J. F.

Engelhardt, R.

Fercher, A. F.

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 565 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley-Interscience, 1985).

Gossage, K. W.

K. W. Gossage, T. S. Tkaczyk, J. J. Rodriguez, and J. K. Barton, J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 570 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Götzinger, E.

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 565 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hashemi, H.

A. Abdi, H. Hashemi, and S. Nader-Esfahani, IEEE Trans. Commun. 48, 7 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hillman, T. R.

D. D. Sampson and T. R. Hillman, in Lasers and Current Optical Techniques in Biology, G.Palumbo and R.Pratesi, eds. (Royal Society of Chemistry, 2004).

Hitzenberger, C. K.

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 565 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Imai, Y.

Kumar, G.

Leitgeb, R.

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 565 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nader-Esfahani, S.

A. Abdi, H. Hashemi, and S. Nader-Esfahani, IEEE Trans. Commun. 48, 7 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, J. S.

Pan, Y.

Pircher, M.

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 565 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rodriguez, J. J.

K. W. Gossage, T. S. Tkaczyk, J. J. Rodriguez, and J. K. Barton, J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 570 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosperich, J.

Sampson, D. D.

D. D. Sampson and T. R. Hillman, in Lasers and Current Optical Techniques in Biology, G.Palumbo and R.Pratesi, eds. (Royal Society of Chemistry, 2004).

Saxer, C.

Schmitt, J. M.

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Schmitt and G. Kumar, Appl. Opt. 37, 2788 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, Q.

Siegel, A. M.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanaka, K.

Tkaczyk, T. S.

K. W. Gossage, T. S. Tkaczyk, J. J. Rodriguez, and J. K. Barton, J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 570 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tuchin, V.

V. Tuchin, Tissue Optics (SPIE, 2000).

Xiang, S.

Xiang, S. H.

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yung, K. M.

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.

Appl. Opt. (2)

IEEE Trans. Commun. (1)

A. Abdi, H. Hashemi, and S. Nader-Esfahani, IEEE Trans. Commun. 48, 7 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (3)

K. W. Gossage, T. S. Tkaczyk, J. J. Rodriguez, and J. K. Barton, J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 570 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 565 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (4)

J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley-Interscience, 1985).

V. Tuchin, Tissue Optics (SPIE, 2000).

J.C.Dainty, ed. Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, 2nd ed. (Springer, 1984).

D. D. Sampson and T. R. Hillman, in Lasers and Current Optical Techniques in Biology, G.Palumbo and R.Pratesi, eds. (Royal Society of Chemistry, 2004).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of OCT system. BBS, broadband source; PC, polarization controller; FD-ODL, frequency-domain optical delay line; VOA, variable optical attenuator; PD, photodetector.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Plot of mean detected signal (upper) and contrast ratio (lower) versus axial position (referenced to the sample–glass interface), for 0.51 μ m microspheres.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Plot of contrast ratio versus effective number of scatterers for 0.51 and 1.01 μ m spheres.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

f ( x , y , z ) = exp { [ x 2 + y 2 ( D 2 ) 2 + 2 π z 2 L 2 ] } ,
g ( r ; r 0 ) = { [ 3 ( 2 r ln r 0 ) ] ( ln r ln r 0 ) 1 2 if r ( r 0 , 1 ) 0 otherwise } .
CR = [ μ n ( 2 ) ¯ μ n ( 1 ) ¯ 2 ] 1 2 μ n ( 1 ) ¯ ,

Metrics