Abstract

The properties of the focal spot for 4π focusing with radially polarized first-order Laguerre–Gaussian beams are calculated. It is shown that a focal spot that has an extremely sharp dark region at the center and an almost-perfect spherical symmetry can be achieved. When such a hollow dark spherical spot is used in 4π fluorescence depletion microscopy, an axial FWHM spot size of 39nm and a transverse FWHM spot size of 64nm can be achieved simultaneously in a practical system.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2005 (2)

2004 (3)

2003 (3)

2002 (2)

2001 (1)

L. Paterson, M. P. MacDonald, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, P. E. Bryant, and K. Dholakia, Science 292, 912 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

R. Oron, Sh. Blit, N. Davidson, A. A. Friesem, Z. Bomzon, and E. Hasman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3322 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Ozeri, L. Khaykovich, N. Friedman, and N. Davidson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1113 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1997 (1)

T. Kuga, Y. Torii, N. Shiokawa, T. Hirano, Y. Shimizu, and H. Sasada, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4713 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

1959 (1)

B. Richards and E. Wolf, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 253, 358 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Ait-Ameur, K.

Arlt, J.

L. Paterson, M. P. MacDonald, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, P. E. Bryant, and K. Dholakia, Science 292, 912 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Armstrong, D. J.

Biener, G.

Blit, Sh.

R. Oron, Sh. Blit, N. Davidson, A. A. Friesem, Z. Bomzon, and E. Hasman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3322 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bokor, N.

Bomzon, Z.

Z. Bomzon, G. Biener, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Opt. Lett. 27, 285 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Oron, Sh. Blit, N. Davidson, A. A. Friesem, Z. Bomzon, and E. Hasman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3322 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bryant, P. E.

L. Paterson, M. P. MacDonald, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, P. E. Bryant, and K. Dholakia, Science 292, 912 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davidson, N.

Dholakia, K.

L. Paterson, M. P. MacDonald, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, P. E. Bryant, and K. Dholakia, Science 292, 912 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dyba, M.

M. Dyba, J. Keller, and S. W. Hell, New J. Phys. 7, 134 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Dyba and S. W. Hell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 163901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Friedman, N.

Friesem, A. A.

R. Oron, Sh. Blit, N. Davidson, A. A. Friesem, Z. Bomzon, and E. Hasman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3322 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, M.

T. Watanabe, M. Fujii, Y. Watanabe, N. Toyama, and Y. Iketaki, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 5131 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Watanabe, Y. Iketaki, T. Omatsu, K. Yamamoto, M. Sakai, and M. Fujii, Opt. Express 11, 3271 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gan, X.

Ganic, D.

Gu, M.

Hasman, E.

Z. Bomzon, G. Biener, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Opt. Lett. 27, 285 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Oron, Sh. Blit, N. Davidson, A. A. Friesem, Z. Bomzon, and E. Hasman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3322 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hell, S. W.

M. Dyba, J. Keller, and S. W. Hell, New J. Phys. 7, 134 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Dyba and S. W. Hell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 163901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. A. Klar and S. W. Hell, Opt. Lett. 24, 954 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Hell and J. Wichmann, Opt. Lett. 19, 780 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hierle, R.

Hirano, T.

T. Kuga, Y. Torii, N. Shiokawa, T. Hirano, Y. Shimizu, and H. Sasada, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4713 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Iketaki, Y.

T. Watanabe, M. Fujii, Y. Watanabe, N. Toyama, and Y. Iketaki, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 5131 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Watanabe, Y. Iketaki, T. Omatsu, K. Yamamoto, M. Sakai, and M. Fujii, Opt. Express 11, 3271 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keller, J.

M. Dyba, J. Keller, and S. W. Hell, New J. Phys. 7, 134 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Khaykovich, L.

Kim, G. H.

Kimura, W. D.

Klar, T. A.

Kleiner, V.

Kuga, T.

T. Kuga, Y. Torii, N. Shiokawa, T. Hirano, Y. Shimizu, and H. Sasada, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4713 (1997).
[CrossRef]

MacDonald, M. P.

L. Paterson, M. P. MacDonald, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, P. E. Bryant, and K. Dholakia, Science 292, 912 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Omatsu, T.

Oron, R.

R. Oron, Sh. Blit, N. Davidson, A. A. Friesem, Z. Bomzon, and E. Hasman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3322 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ozeri, R.

Passilly, N.

Paterson, L.

L. Paterson, M. P. MacDonald, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, P. E. Bryant, and K. Dholakia, Science 292, 912 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phillips, M. C.

Richards, B.

B. Richards and E. Wolf, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 253, 358 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Roch, J.-F.

Saint Denis, R.

Sakai, M.

Sasada, H.

T. Kuga, Y. Torii, N. Shiokawa, T. Hirano, Y. Shimizu, and H. Sasada, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4713 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, Y.

T. Kuga, Y. Torii, N. Shiokawa, T. Hirano, Y. Shimizu, and H. Sasada, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4713 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shiokawa, N.

T. Kuga, Y. Torii, N. Shiokawa, T. Hirano, Y. Shimizu, and H. Sasada, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4713 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sibbett, W.

L. Paterson, M. P. MacDonald, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, P. E. Bryant, and K. Dholakia, Science 292, 912 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siegman, A. E.

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science Books, 1986), Sec. 17.5, pp. 685-695.

Smith, A. V.

Tidwell, S. C.

Torii, Y.

T. Kuga, Y. Torii, N. Shiokawa, T. Hirano, Y. Shimizu, and H. Sasada, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4713 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Toyama, N.

T. Watanabe, M. Fujii, Y. Watanabe, N. Toyama, and Y. Iketaki, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 5131 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Treussart, F.

Watanabe, T.

T. Watanabe, M. Fujii, Y. Watanabe, N. Toyama, and Y. Iketaki, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 5131 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Watanabe, Y. Iketaki, T. Omatsu, K. Yamamoto, M. Sakai, and M. Fujii, Opt. Express 11, 3271 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watanabe, Y.

T. Watanabe, M. Fujii, Y. Watanabe, N. Toyama, and Y. Iketaki, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 5131 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wichmann, J.

Wolf, E.

B. Richards and E. Wolf, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 253, 358 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, K.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. Oron, Sh. Blit, N. Davidson, A. A. Friesem, Z. Bomzon, and E. Hasman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3322 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

New J. Phys. (1)

M. Dyba, J. Keller, and S. W. Hell, New J. Phys. 7, 134 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

M. Dyba and S. W. Hell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 163901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kuga, Y. Torii, N. Shiokawa, T. Hirano, Y. Shimizu, and H. Sasada, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4713 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A (1)

B. Richards and E. Wolf, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 253, 358 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

T. Watanabe, M. Fujii, Y. Watanabe, N. Toyama, and Y. Iketaki, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 5131 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

L. Paterson, M. P. MacDonald, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, P. E. Bryant, and K. Dholakia, Science 292, 912 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science Books, 1986), Sec. 17.5, pp. 685-695.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of a 4 π focusing system consisting of two high-NA lenses (L1 and L2) illuminated by two counterpropagating radially polarized first-order Laguerre–Gaussian beams (RPLG1 and RPLG2). The polarization diagrams of the two input beams are shown at the bottom for a specific time instant. Both vector diagrams rotate with the frequency of the illuminating light. The two beams are phase shifted by π relative to each other.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Left, transverse and right, axial intensity contour maps in the focal region of the setup of Fig. 1, with NA = 1 . A sharp dark spot is created at the focus, surrounded by a bright region that has nearly perfect spherical symmetry.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated normalized intensity profiles for the erase beam (open circles), the pump beam (filled circles), and the fluorescent signal (thick solid curves): (a) along the r axis and (b) along the z axis when the setup of Fig. 1 is used for stimulated-emission depletion microscopy with two oil-immersion objectives of NA = 1.4 , Pyridine 2 dye molecules, and circularly polarized pump illumination. The FWHM spot sizes of the fluorescent signal are 64 and 39 nm in the focal plane and along the optical axis, respectively. Also shown are the r, φ, and z intensities (squares, triangles, and diamonds, respectively), for the pump beam (filled figures) and the erase beam (open figures), respectively.

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