Abstract

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) sensors traditionally use scanning optical delay lines with moving parts and a single detector. OCT systems with a linear detector array (linear OCT or L-OCT) are simple and robust, but a detector with approximately 10,000pixels is needed for an imaging depth of 2mm, which is necessary for most biomedical applications. We present a new optical setup for L-OCT with an increased measurement range. An additional grating performs a reduction of the spatial frequencies of the fringe pattern on the detector without loss in the signal-to-noise ratio, so the signal can be sampled with a minimal number of pixels. The theory for this approach is addressed and the first measurements are presented.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. Haeusler and M. W. Lindner, J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. I. Zeylikovich, A. Gilerson, and R. R. Alfano, Opt. Lett. 23, 1797 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. Hauger, M. Worz, and T. Hellmuth, Appl. Opt. 42, 3896 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Wosnitza, Master thesis (University of Applied Science, Lübeck, 2000).
  7. M. Nannini, P. Nerin, P. Benech, and I. Schanen-Duport, Opt. Eng. 42, 75 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. Koch, G. Hüttmann, H. Schleiermacher, J. Eichholz, and E. Koch, Opt. Lett. 29, 1644 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2003 (2)

C. Hauger, M. Worz, and T. Hellmuth, Appl. Opt. 42, 3896 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nannini, P. Nerin, P. Benech, and I. Schanen-Duport, Opt. Eng. 42, 75 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

1995 (1)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alfano, R. R.

Benech, P.

M. Nannini, P. Nerin, P. Benech, and I. Schanen-Duport, Opt. Eng. 42, 75 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eichholz, J.

El-Zaiat, S. Y.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fercher, A. F.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gilerson, A.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haeusler, G.

G. Haeusler and M. W. Lindner, J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hauger, C.

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hellmuth, T.

Hitzenberger, C. K.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hüttmann, G.

Kamp, G.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Koch, E.

Koch, P.

Lin, C.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lindner, M. W.

G. Haeusler and M. W. Lindner, J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nannini, M.

M. Nannini, P. Nerin, P. Benech, and I. Schanen-Duport, Opt. Eng. 42, 75 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nerin, P.

M. Nannini, P. Nerin, P. Benech, and I. Schanen-Duport, Opt. Eng. 42, 75 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schanen-Duport, I.

M. Nannini, P. Nerin, P. Benech, and I. Schanen-Duport, Opt. Eng. 42, 75 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schleiermacher, H.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Worz, M.

Wosnitza, M.

M. Wosnitza, Master thesis (University of Applied Science, Lübeck, 2000).

Zeylikovich, I.

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

G. Haeusler and M. W. Lindner, J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

M. Nannini, P. Nerin, P. Benech, and I. Schanen-Duport, Opt. Eng. 42, 75 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

M. Wosnitza, Master thesis (University of Applied Science, Lübeck, 2000).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Principle of L-OCT: Probe and reference intensity interfere as planar waves on the surface of an image sensor.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic setup of a L-OCT with a grating for fringe frequency subtraction.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Signal on the detector with a single glass–air interface in the probe arm of the interferometer. Inset, enlargement of the measured modulation together with the demodulated OCT signal (dotted curve). Although the coherence length of the light source was 19.7 μ m , there are only three fringes in the FWHM because of the fringe frequency subtraction effect of the grating.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

A-scan signal of the glass–air interface after bandpass filtering and demodulation on a logarithmic scale.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

In vivo B-scan image of human skin at the forearm. The image dimensions are 940 μ m × 2 mm at a lateral resolution of 5 μ m . The boundaries between dermis, epidermis, and single vessels are visible.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I F ( x ) = I P + I R + 2 I P I R 1 2 π exp [ 4 ln 2 ( x sin α 2 z P 2 l c ) 2 ] cos [ ω 0 ( sin α x 2 z P ) c ] .
E P ( x ) = I P exp ( i ω z c ) ,
E R ( x ) = I R exp [ i x ( ω sin α c + 2 π g ) ] .
I ω ( x ) = I P + I R + 2 I P I R cos [ ( ω sin α c 2 π g ) x + 2 ω z p c ] .
I F ( x ) = I P + I R + 2 I P I R 1 2 π exp [ 4 ln 2 ( x sin α 2 z P 2 l c ) 2 ] cos [ ( ω 0 sin α c 2 π g ) x 2 ω 0 z P c ] .

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