Abstract

We propose and experimentally demonstrate a simple and practical scheme for simultaneous measurement of bending and temperature based on a single sampled chirped fiber Bragg grating with multiple resonant peaks, which is embedded on a flexible cantilever beam. The wavelength spacing of the grating can be changed by adjusting the bending curvature change, since the compressive strain gradient induced by the bending of the cantilever beam changes the chirp ratio of the fiber grating. However, the wavelength spacing of the fiber grating is not changed by the temperature variation; the multiple resonant wavelengths are only shifted into the longer wavelength because of the positive thermal-expansion and thermo-optic coefficients of the fiber grating. Consequently, the proposed scheme allows for discrimination between two effects of bending and temperature.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. A. Krug, J. Chow, B. J. Eggleton, P. Hill, M. Ibsen, F. Ouellette, T. Stephens, and G. Town, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1996 OSA Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1996), paper WF1.
  2. S. W. James, M. L. Dockney, and R. P. Tatam, Electron. Lett. 32, 1133 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. G. Han, S. B. Lee, C. S. Kim, J. U. Kang, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, Opt. Express 11, 476 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. T. Guo, S. Qiao, Z. Jia, Q. Zhao, and X. Dong, Appl. Opt. 45, 2935 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. L. Jin, W. Zhang, H. Zhang, B. Liu, J. Zhao, Q. Tu, G. Kai, and X. Dong, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 144 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. X. Dong, X. Yang, C.-L. Zhao, L. Ding, P. Shum, and N. Q. Ngo, Smart Mater. Struct. 14, 7 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Z. Wei, Y. Yu, H. Xing, Z. Zhuo, Y. Wu, L. Zhang, W. Zheng, and Y. Zhang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 821 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (2)

T. Guo, S. Qiao, Z. Jia, Q. Zhao, and X. Dong, Appl. Opt. 45, 2935 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Jin, W. Zhang, H. Zhang, B. Liu, J. Zhao, Q. Tu, G. Kai, and X. Dong, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 144 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

X. Dong, X. Yang, C.-L. Zhao, L. Ding, P. Shum, and N. Q. Ngo, Smart Mater. Struct. 14, 7 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2001 (1)

Z. Wei, Y. Yu, H. Xing, Z. Zhuo, Y. Wu, L. Zhang, W. Zheng, and Y. Zhang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 821 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

S. W. James, M. L. Dockney, and R. P. Tatam, Electron. Lett. 32, 1133 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chow, J.

P. A. Krug, J. Chow, B. J. Eggleton, P. Hill, M. Ibsen, F. Ouellette, T. Stephens, and G. Town, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1996 OSA Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1996), paper WF1.

Chung, Y.

Ding, L.

X. Dong, X. Yang, C.-L. Zhao, L. Ding, P. Shum, and N. Q. Ngo, Smart Mater. Struct. 14, 7 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dockney, M. L.

S. W. James, M. L. Dockney, and R. P. Tatam, Electron. Lett. 32, 1133 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dong, X.

L. Jin, W. Zhang, H. Zhang, B. Liu, J. Zhao, Q. Tu, G. Kai, and X. Dong, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 144 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Guo, S. Qiao, Z. Jia, Q. Zhao, and X. Dong, Appl. Opt. 45, 2935 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Dong, X. Yang, C.-L. Zhao, L. Ding, P. Shum, and N. Q. Ngo, Smart Mater. Struct. 14, 7 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

P. A. Krug, J. Chow, B. J. Eggleton, P. Hill, M. Ibsen, F. Ouellette, T. Stephens, and G. Town, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1996 OSA Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1996), paper WF1.

Guo, T.

Han, Y. G.

Hill, P.

P. A. Krug, J. Chow, B. J. Eggleton, P. Hill, M. Ibsen, F. Ouellette, T. Stephens, and G. Town, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1996 OSA Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1996), paper WF1.

Ibsen, M.

P. A. Krug, J. Chow, B. J. Eggleton, P. Hill, M. Ibsen, F. Ouellette, T. Stephens, and G. Town, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1996 OSA Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1996), paper WF1.

James, S. W.

S. W. James, M. L. Dockney, and R. P. Tatam, Electron. Lett. 32, 1133 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jia, Z.

Jin, L.

L. Jin, W. Zhang, H. Zhang, B. Liu, J. Zhao, Q. Tu, G. Kai, and X. Dong, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 144 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kai, G.

L. Jin, W. Zhang, H. Zhang, B. Liu, J. Zhao, Q. Tu, G. Kai, and X. Dong, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 144 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J. U.

Kim, C. S.

Krug, P. A.

P. A. Krug, J. Chow, B. J. Eggleton, P. Hill, M. Ibsen, F. Ouellette, T. Stephens, and G. Town, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1996 OSA Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1996), paper WF1.

Lee, S. B.

Liu, B.

L. Jin, W. Zhang, H. Zhang, B. Liu, J. Zhao, Q. Tu, G. Kai, and X. Dong, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 144 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ngo, N. Q.

X. Dong, X. Yang, C.-L. Zhao, L. Ding, P. Shum, and N. Q. Ngo, Smart Mater. Struct. 14, 7 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ouellette, F.

P. A. Krug, J. Chow, B. J. Eggleton, P. Hill, M. Ibsen, F. Ouellette, T. Stephens, and G. Town, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1996 OSA Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1996), paper WF1.

Paek, U. C.

Qiao, S.

Shum, P.

X. Dong, X. Yang, C.-L. Zhao, L. Ding, P. Shum, and N. Q. Ngo, Smart Mater. Struct. 14, 7 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stephens, T.

P. A. Krug, J. Chow, B. J. Eggleton, P. Hill, M. Ibsen, F. Ouellette, T. Stephens, and G. Town, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1996 OSA Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1996), paper WF1.

Tatam, R. P.

S. W. James, M. L. Dockney, and R. P. Tatam, Electron. Lett. 32, 1133 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Town, G.

P. A. Krug, J. Chow, B. J. Eggleton, P. Hill, M. Ibsen, F. Ouellette, T. Stephens, and G. Town, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1996 OSA Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1996), paper WF1.

Tu, Q.

L. Jin, W. Zhang, H. Zhang, B. Liu, J. Zhao, Q. Tu, G. Kai, and X. Dong, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 144 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wei, Z.

Z. Wei, Y. Yu, H. Xing, Z. Zhuo, Y. Wu, L. Zhang, W. Zheng, and Y. Zhang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 821 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.

Z. Wei, Y. Yu, H. Xing, Z. Zhuo, Y. Wu, L. Zhang, W. Zheng, and Y. Zhang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 821 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Xing, H.

Z. Wei, Y. Yu, H. Xing, Z. Zhuo, Y. Wu, L. Zhang, W. Zheng, and Y. Zhang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 821 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yang, X.

X. Dong, X. Yang, C.-L. Zhao, L. Ding, P. Shum, and N. Q. Ngo, Smart Mater. Struct. 14, 7 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Y.

Z. Wei, Y. Yu, H. Xing, Z. Zhuo, Y. Wu, L. Zhang, W. Zheng, and Y. Zhang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 821 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

L. Jin, W. Zhang, H. Zhang, B. Liu, J. Zhao, Q. Tu, G. Kai, and X. Dong, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 144 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

Z. Wei, Y. Yu, H. Xing, Z. Zhuo, Y. Wu, L. Zhang, W. Zheng, and Y. Zhang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 821 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.

L. Jin, W. Zhang, H. Zhang, B. Liu, J. Zhao, Q. Tu, G. Kai, and X. Dong, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 144 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

Z. Wei, Y. Yu, H. Xing, Z. Zhuo, Y. Wu, L. Zhang, W. Zheng, and Y. Zhang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 821 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, C.-L.

X. Dong, X. Yang, C.-L. Zhao, L. Ding, P. Shum, and N. Q. Ngo, Smart Mater. Struct. 14, 7 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, J.

L. Jin, W. Zhang, H. Zhang, B. Liu, J. Zhao, Q. Tu, G. Kai, and X. Dong, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 144 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Q.

Zheng, W.

Z. Wei, Y. Yu, H. Xing, Z. Zhuo, Y. Wu, L. Zhang, W. Zheng, and Y. Zhang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 821 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhuo, Z.

Z. Wei, Y. Yu, H. Xing, Z. Zhuo, Y. Wu, L. Zhang, W. Zheng, and Y. Zhang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 821 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (1)

S. W. James, M. L. Dockney, and R. P. Tatam, Electron. Lett. 32, 1133 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

L. Jin, W. Zhang, H. Zhang, B. Liu, J. Zhao, Q. Tu, G. Kai, and X. Dong, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 144 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wei, Y. Yu, H. Xing, Z. Zhuo, Y. Wu, L. Zhang, W. Zheng, and Y. Zhang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 821 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Smart Mater. Struct. (1)

X. Dong, X. Yang, C.-L. Zhao, L. Ding, P. Shum, and N. Q. Ngo, Smart Mater. Struct. 14, 7 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

P. A. Krug, J. Chow, B. J. Eggleton, P. Hill, M. Ibsen, F. Ouellette, T. Stephens, and G. Town, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1996 OSA Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1996), paper WF1.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental configuration of the four-point bending system with a sampled CFBG embedded in a flexible cantilever beam.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmission spectrum of the sampled CFBG fabricated by a frequency-doubled 244 nm Ar + laser beam scanning technique through a chirped phase mask with amplitude modulation. The channel spacing and the peak depth were 3.8 nm and > 25 dB , respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Transmission spectra of the sampled CFBG, (b) multiple resonant wavelength shifts, and (c) wavelength spacing change as a function of applied temperature.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Transmission spectra of the sampled CFBG and (b) wavelength spacing change as a function of the bending curvature change.

Equations (2)

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Δ λ Δ λ 0 ( 1 + 1 B 0 λ 0 ( 1 ρ e ) t L 2 L g Δ y ) ,
Δ λ shift λ 0 [ α to + ( 1 ρ e ) α c ] Δ T ,

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