Abstract

Orbital angular momentum of photons is explored to study the spatial mode properties of the plasmon-assisted transmission process. We found that photons carrying different orbital angular momenta have different transmission efficiencies, while the coherence between these spatial modes can be preserved.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings, Vol. 111 of Springer Tracts in Modern Physics (Springer, 1988).
  3. D. E. Grupp, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, K. M. Pellerin, and T. Thio, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1569 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. E. Altewischer, M. P. van Exter, and J. P. Woerdman, Nature 418, 304 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. Elliott, I. I. Smolyaninov, N. I. Zheludev, and A. V. Zayats, Opt. Lett. 29, 1414 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. Gordon, A. G. Brolo, A. McKinnon, A. Rajora, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 037401 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. E. Altewischer, C. Genet, M. P. van Exter, and J. P. Woerdman, Opt. Lett. 30, 90 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. H. A. Bethe, Phys. Rev. 66, 182 (1944).
    [CrossRef]
  10. L. Allen, W. Beijersbergen, M. R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. Arlt, K. Dholakia, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1231 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 4, s47 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. X. F. Ren, G. P. Guo, B. Yu, J. Li, and G. C. Guo, J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 6, 243 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. N. K. Langford, R. B. Dalton, M. D. Harvey, J. L. O'Brien, G. J. Pryde, A. Gilchrist, S. D. Bartlett, and A. G. White, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 053601 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2004 (4)

X. F. Ren, G. P. Guo, B. Yu, J. Li, and G. C. Guo, J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 6, 243 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. K. Langford, R. B. Dalton, M. D. Harvey, J. L. O'Brien, G. J. Pryde, A. Gilchrist, S. D. Bartlett, and A. G. White, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 053601 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Gordon, A. G. Brolo, A. McKinnon, A. Rajora, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 037401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Elliott, I. I. Smolyaninov, N. I. Zheludev, and A. V. Zayats, Opt. Lett. 29, 1414 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

E. Altewischer, M. P. van Exter, and J. P. Woerdman, Nature 418, 304 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 4, s47 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

D. E. Grupp, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, K. M. Pellerin, and T. Thio, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1569 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Arlt, K. Dholakia, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1231 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

L. Allen, W. Beijersbergen, M. R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1944 (1)

H. A. Bethe, Phys. Rev. 66, 182 (1944).
[CrossRef]

Allen, L.

J. Arlt, K. Dholakia, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1231 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Allen, W. Beijersbergen, M. R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Altewischer, E.

Arlt, J.

J. Arlt, K. Dholakia, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1231 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bartlett, S. D.

N. K. Langford, R. B. Dalton, M. D. Harvey, J. L. O'Brien, G. J. Pryde, A. Gilchrist, S. D. Bartlett, and A. G. White, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 053601 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beijersbergen, W.

L. Allen, W. Beijersbergen, M. R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bethe, H. A.

H. A. Bethe, Phys. Rev. 66, 182 (1944).
[CrossRef]

Brolo, A. G.

R. Gordon, A. G. Brolo, A. McKinnon, A. Rajora, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 037401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dalton, R. B.

N. K. Langford, R. B. Dalton, M. D. Harvey, J. L. O'Brien, G. J. Pryde, A. Gilchrist, S. D. Bartlett, and A. G. White, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 053601 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dholakia, K.

J. Arlt, K. Dholakia, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1231 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

M. Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Grupp, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, K. M. Pellerin, and T. Thio, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1569 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Elliott, J.

García-Vidal, F. J.

M. Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Genet, C.

Ghaemi, H. F.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gilchrist, A.

N. K. Langford, R. B. Dalton, M. D. Harvey, J. L. O'Brien, G. J. Pryde, A. Gilchrist, S. D. Bartlett, and A. G. White, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 053601 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gordon, R.

R. Gordon, A. G. Brolo, A. McKinnon, A. Rajora, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 037401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grupp, D. E.

D. E. Grupp, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, K. M. Pellerin, and T. Thio, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1569 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Guo, G. C.

X. F. Ren, G. P. Guo, B. Yu, J. Li, and G. C. Guo, J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 6, 243 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Guo, G. P.

X. F. Ren, G. P. Guo, B. Yu, J. Li, and G. C. Guo, J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 6, 243 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Harvey, M. D.

N. K. Langford, R. B. Dalton, M. D. Harvey, J. L. O'Brien, G. J. Pryde, A. Gilchrist, S. D. Bartlett, and A. G. White, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 053601 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kavanagh, K. L.

R. Gordon, A. G. Brolo, A. McKinnon, A. Rajora, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 037401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Langford, N. K.

N. K. Langford, R. B. Dalton, M. D. Harvey, J. L. O'Brien, G. J. Pryde, A. Gilchrist, S. D. Bartlett, and A. G. White, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 053601 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leathem, B.

R. Gordon, A. G. Brolo, A. McKinnon, A. Rajora, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 037401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lezec, H. J.

M. Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Grupp, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, K. M. Pellerin, and T. Thio, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1569 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

X. F. Ren, G. P. Guo, B. Yu, J. Li, and G. C. Guo, J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 6, 243 (2004).
[CrossRef]

McKinnon, A.

R. Gordon, A. G. Brolo, A. McKinnon, A. Rajora, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 037401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moreno, M.

M. Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114 (2001).
[CrossRef]

O'Brien, J. L.

N. K. Langford, R. B. Dalton, M. D. Harvey, J. L. O'Brien, G. J. Pryde, A. Gilchrist, S. D. Bartlett, and A. G. White, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 053601 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Padgett, M. J.

J. Arlt, K. Dholakia, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1231 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pellerin, K. M.

M. Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Grupp, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, K. M. Pellerin, and T. Thio, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1569 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pendry, J. B.

M. Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pryde, G. J.

N. K. Langford, R. B. Dalton, M. D. Harvey, J. L. O'Brien, G. J. Pryde, A. Gilchrist, S. D. Bartlett, and A. G. White, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 053601 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raether, H.

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings, Vol. 111 of Springer Tracts in Modern Physics (Springer, 1988).

Rajora, A.

R. Gordon, A. G. Brolo, A. McKinnon, A. Rajora, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 037401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ren, X. F.

X. F. Ren, G. P. Guo, B. Yu, J. Li, and G. C. Guo, J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 6, 243 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Smolyaninov, I. I.

Spreeuw, M. R. J. C.

L. Allen, W. Beijersbergen, M. R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thio, T.

M. Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Grupp, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, K. M. Pellerin, and T. Thio, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1569 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

van Exter, M. P.

Vaziri, A.

A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 4, s47 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Weihs, G.

A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 4, s47 (2002).
[CrossRef]

White, A. G.

N. K. Langford, R. B. Dalton, M. D. Harvey, J. L. O'Brien, G. J. Pryde, A. Gilchrist, S. D. Bartlett, and A. G. White, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 053601 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Woerdman, J. P.

E. Altewischer, C. Genet, M. P. van Exter, and J. P. Woerdman, Opt. Lett. 30, 90 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Altewischer, M. P. van Exter, and J. P. Woerdman, Nature 418, 304 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Allen, W. Beijersbergen, M. R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolff, P. A.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yu, B.

X. F. Ren, G. P. Guo, B. Yu, J. Li, and G. C. Guo, J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 6, 243 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zayats, A. V.

Zeilinger, A.

A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 4, s47 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zheludev, N. I.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. E. Grupp, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, K. M. Pellerin, and T. Thio, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1569 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

J. Arlt, K. Dholakia, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1231 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. (2)

A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 4, s47 (2002).
[CrossRef]

X. F. Ren, G. P. Guo, B. Yu, J. Li, and G. C. Guo, J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 6, 243 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Altewischer, M. P. van Exter, and J. P. Woerdman, Nature 418, 304 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. (1)

H. A. Bethe, Phys. Rev. 66, 182 (1944).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

L. Allen, W. Beijersbergen, M. R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

M. Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. K. Langford, R. B. Dalton, M. D. Harvey, J. L. O'Brien, G. J. Pryde, A. Gilchrist, S. D. Bartlett, and A. G. White, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 053601 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Gordon, A. G. Brolo, A. McKinnon, A. Rajora, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 037401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings, Vol. 111 of Springer Tracts in Modern Physics (Springer, 1988).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Hole array transmittance as a function of wavelength. The dashed vertical line indicates the wavelength of 670 nm used in the experiment.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup: a computer-generated hologram (CGH) is used to change the OAM of the light from the output of a single-mode fiber (SMF). A metal plate (MP) is placed between twin lenses (focus 35 mm ). The light that is incident on the metal plate has a diameter smaller than 30 μ m . Another CGH and SMF are combined to analyze the OAM of the transmitted photons. Inset, picture of part of a typical CGH ( l = 1 ) .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Count (black squares) as a function of the displacement of the second CGH. The metal plate is moved out. (a) The fork of the first CGH is displaced far from the beam center, so the light is in the 0 OAM state, (b) The fork of the first CGH is placed in the beam center, so the light is in the 1 OAM state. The red circles are from the theoretical calculation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Counts (black squares) as a function of the displacement of the second CGH. The metal plate is placed between the twin lenses. (a) The fork of the first CGH is displaced far from the beam center, so the light that is incident on the metal plate is in the 0 OAM state. (b) The fork of the first CGH is placed in the beam center, so the light incident on the metal plate is in the 1 OAM state. The red circles are from the theoretical calculation.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Counts as a function of the displacement of the second CGH. The fork of the first CGH is displaced a small amount from the beam center, so the light is in the superposition mode. (a) The metal plate is moved out from between the twin lenses. The visibility is 96.0%. (b) The metal plate is placed between the twin lenses. The visibility is 94.4%.

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