Abstract

We propose a novel implementation of true-time delay (TTD) using air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers (PBGFs) and a broadband light source. The air-guiding PBGFs are experimentally studied and used in the TTD module for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. The proposed approach shows the advantages of simple architecture, compact size, larger dispersion, low-temperature sensitivity, and high immunity to nonlinear effects in our experiments. The PBGFs were spliced with single-mode fibers with a 2dB loss, and the characteristics of the PBGFs were measured. The PBGF–TTD with a continuously tunable time delays from 0 to 500ps was demonstrated using the amplified spontaneous emission light of an erbium-doped filter amplifier as a broadband light source.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. W. Ng, A. A. Walston, G. L. Tangonan, J. J. Lee, I. L. Newberg, and N. Bernstein, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1124 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. D. Esman, M. M. Frankel, J. L. Dexter, L. Goldberg, M. G. Parent, D. Stilwell, and D. G. Cooper, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1347 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. L. Corral, J. Marti, S. Regidor, J. M. Fuster, R. Laming, and M. J. Cole, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1531 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. O. Raz, R. Rotman, Y. Danziger, and M. Tur, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1367 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Jiang, B. Howley, Z. Shi, Q. Zhou, R. T. Chen, M. Y. Chen, G. Brost, and C. Lee, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 187 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Z. Liu, X. Zheng, H. Zhang, and Y. Guo, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CThS1.
  7. J. Yao, J. Yang, and Y. Liu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 687 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Q. Jiang, B. Howley, and Z. Shi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 187 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. ITU-T Recommendation G.650 (10/2000), pp. 44-48.
  10. L. Prigent and J. P. Hamaide, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1092 (1993).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (2)

Y. Jiang, B. Howley, Z. Shi, Q. Zhou, R. T. Chen, M. Y. Chen, G. Brost, and C. Lee, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 187 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. Jiang, B. Howley, and Z. Shi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 187 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

O. Raz, R. Rotman, Y. Danziger, and M. Tur, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1367 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

J. Yao, J. Yang, and Y. Liu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 687 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

J. L. Corral, J. Marti, S. Regidor, J. M. Fuster, R. Laming, and M. J. Cole, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1531 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

R. D. Esman, M. M. Frankel, J. L. Dexter, L. Goldberg, M. G. Parent, D. Stilwell, and D. G. Cooper, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1347 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. Prigent and J. P. Hamaide, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1092 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

W. Ng, A. A. Walston, G. L. Tangonan, J. J. Lee, I. L. Newberg, and N. Bernstein, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1124 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bernstein, N.

W. Ng, A. A. Walston, G. L. Tangonan, J. J. Lee, I. L. Newberg, and N. Bernstein, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1124 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Brost, G.

Y. Jiang, B. Howley, Z. Shi, Q. Zhou, R. T. Chen, M. Y. Chen, G. Brost, and C. Lee, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 187 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, M. Y.

Y. Jiang, B. Howley, Z. Shi, Q. Zhou, R. T. Chen, M. Y. Chen, G. Brost, and C. Lee, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 187 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, R. T.

Y. Jiang, B. Howley, Z. Shi, Q. Zhou, R. T. Chen, M. Y. Chen, G. Brost, and C. Lee, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 187 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cole, M. J.

J. L. Corral, J. Marti, S. Regidor, J. M. Fuster, R. Laming, and M. J. Cole, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1531 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, D. G.

R. D. Esman, M. M. Frankel, J. L. Dexter, L. Goldberg, M. G. Parent, D. Stilwell, and D. G. Cooper, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1347 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Corral, J. L.

J. L. Corral, J. Marti, S. Regidor, J. M. Fuster, R. Laming, and M. J. Cole, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1531 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Danziger, Y.

O. Raz, R. Rotman, Y. Danziger, and M. Tur, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1367 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dexter, J. L.

R. D. Esman, M. M. Frankel, J. L. Dexter, L. Goldberg, M. G. Parent, D. Stilwell, and D. G. Cooper, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1347 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Esman, R. D.

R. D. Esman, M. M. Frankel, J. L. Dexter, L. Goldberg, M. G. Parent, D. Stilwell, and D. G. Cooper, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1347 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Frankel, M. M.

R. D. Esman, M. M. Frankel, J. L. Dexter, L. Goldberg, M. G. Parent, D. Stilwell, and D. G. Cooper, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1347 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fuster, J. M.

J. L. Corral, J. Marti, S. Regidor, J. M. Fuster, R. Laming, and M. J. Cole, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1531 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Goldberg, L.

R. D. Esman, M. M. Frankel, J. L. Dexter, L. Goldberg, M. G. Parent, D. Stilwell, and D. G. Cooper, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1347 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Guo, Y.

Z. Liu, X. Zheng, H. Zhang, and Y. Guo, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CThS1.

Hamaide, J. P.

L. Prigent and J. P. Hamaide, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1092 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Howley, B.

Q. Jiang, B. Howley, and Z. Shi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 187 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jiang, B. Howley, Z. Shi, Q. Zhou, R. T. Chen, M. Y. Chen, G. Brost, and C. Lee, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 187 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Q.

Q. Jiang, B. Howley, and Z. Shi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 187 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Y.

Y. Jiang, B. Howley, Z. Shi, Q. Zhou, R. T. Chen, M. Y. Chen, G. Brost, and C. Lee, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 187 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Laming, R.

J. L. Corral, J. Marti, S. Regidor, J. M. Fuster, R. Laming, and M. J. Cole, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1531 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.

Y. Jiang, B. Howley, Z. Shi, Q. Zhou, R. T. Chen, M. Y. Chen, G. Brost, and C. Lee, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 187 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. J.

W. Ng, A. A. Walston, G. L. Tangonan, J. J. Lee, I. L. Newberg, and N. Bernstein, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1124 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

J. Yao, J. Yang, and Y. Liu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 687 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z.

Z. Liu, X. Zheng, H. Zhang, and Y. Guo, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CThS1.

Marti, J.

J. L. Corral, J. Marti, S. Regidor, J. M. Fuster, R. Laming, and M. J. Cole, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1531 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Newberg, I. L.

W. Ng, A. A. Walston, G. L. Tangonan, J. J. Lee, I. L. Newberg, and N. Bernstein, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1124 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ng, W.

W. Ng, A. A. Walston, G. L. Tangonan, J. J. Lee, I. L. Newberg, and N. Bernstein, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1124 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Parent, M. G.

R. D. Esman, M. M. Frankel, J. L. Dexter, L. Goldberg, M. G. Parent, D. Stilwell, and D. G. Cooper, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1347 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Prigent, L.

L. Prigent and J. P. Hamaide, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1092 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Raz, O.

O. Raz, R. Rotman, Y. Danziger, and M. Tur, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1367 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Regidor, S.

J. L. Corral, J. Marti, S. Regidor, J. M. Fuster, R. Laming, and M. J. Cole, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1531 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rotman, R.

O. Raz, R. Rotman, Y. Danziger, and M. Tur, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1367 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shi, Z.

Q. Jiang, B. Howley, and Z. Shi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 187 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jiang, B. Howley, Z. Shi, Q. Zhou, R. T. Chen, M. Y. Chen, G. Brost, and C. Lee, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 187 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stilwell, D.

R. D. Esman, M. M. Frankel, J. L. Dexter, L. Goldberg, M. G. Parent, D. Stilwell, and D. G. Cooper, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1347 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tangonan, G. L.

W. Ng, A. A. Walston, G. L. Tangonan, J. J. Lee, I. L. Newberg, and N. Bernstein, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1124 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tur, M.

O. Raz, R. Rotman, Y. Danziger, and M. Tur, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1367 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Walston, A. A.

W. Ng, A. A. Walston, G. L. Tangonan, J. J. Lee, I. L. Newberg, and N. Bernstein, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1124 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

J. Yao, J. Yang, and Y. Liu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 687 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yao, J.

J. Yao, J. Yang, and Y. Liu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 687 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

Z. Liu, X. Zheng, H. Zhang, and Y. Guo, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CThS1.

Zheng, X.

Z. Liu, X. Zheng, H. Zhang, and Y. Guo, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CThS1.

Zhou, Q.

Y. Jiang, B. Howley, Z. Shi, Q. Zhou, R. T. Chen, M. Y. Chen, G. Brost, and C. Lee, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 187 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (6)

R. D. Esman, M. M. Frankel, J. L. Dexter, L. Goldberg, M. G. Parent, D. Stilwell, and D. G. Cooper, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1347 (1993).
[CrossRef]

O. Raz, R. Rotman, Y. Danziger, and M. Tur, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1367 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jiang, B. Howley, Z. Shi, Q. Zhou, R. T. Chen, M. Y. Chen, G. Brost, and C. Lee, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 187 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Yao, J. Yang, and Y. Liu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 687 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Q. Jiang, B. Howley, and Z. Shi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 187 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Prigent and J. P. Hamaide, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1092 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

J. L. Corral, J. Marti, S. Regidor, J. M. Fuster, R. Laming, and M. J. Cole, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1531 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

W. Ng, A. A. Walston, G. L. Tangonan, J. J. Lee, I. L. Newberg, and N. Bernstein, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1124 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

ITU-T Recommendation G.650 (10/2000), pp. 44-48.

Z. Liu, X. Zheng, H. Zhang, and Y. Guo, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CThS1.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

PBGF–TTD module architecture diagram.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup for rf characteristics of the ASE light of the EDFA and the air-guiding PBGFs as TTD devices.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Left) SEM cross-section image of the air-guiding PBGFs. (Right) Splicing picture of the air-guiding PBGFs with the SMF.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured chromatic dispersion coefficient of the PBGFs, D ( λ ) .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured temperature coefficient of the PBGFs, K T ( λ ) .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured phase as a function of frequency ϕ λ k ( f ) ϕ 1545 ( f ) . The top curves are phase ripples Δ φ ( f ) and power fluctuations Δ P ( f ) , respectively.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Wavelength dependence of delay, t ( λ ) .

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