Abstract

We experimentally demonstrate the light focusing by negative refraction in a photonic crystal slab superlens at wavelengths λ of 1.261.42μm. The photonic crystal slab was fabricated on silicon-on-insulator substrate with an interface structure optimized for low reflection and diffraction losses. The light focusing in the photonic crystal slab was clearly observed through the intentional out-of-plane radiation or scattering of guided light in the slab. The minimum focused spot width was limited to 1.8μm (1.4λ) owing to aberrations. The focusing characteristics were in good agreement with those obtained from photonic band and finite-difference time-domain analyses.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. St. J. Russell and T. B. Birks, Photonic Band Gap Materials (Kluwer Academic, 1996).
  2. H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, Phys. Rev. B 58, R10096 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1212 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Notomi, Phys. Rev. B 62, 10696 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. B 68, 045115 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, and E. Ozbay, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 207401 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Guven, K. Aydin, K. B. Alici, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, Phys. Rev. B 70, 205125 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Z. Lu, C. Chen, C. A. Schuetz, S. Shi, J. A. Murakowski, G. J. Schneider, and D. W. Prather, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 091907 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. B 65, 201104 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Husakou and J. Herrmann, Opt. Express 12, 6491 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. T. Matsumoto, S. Fujita, and T. Baba, Opt. Express 13, 10768 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylén, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073920 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. Fukazawa, T. Hirano, F. Ohno, and T. Baba, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 42, 696 (2004).

2005

Z. Lu, C. Chen, C. A. Schuetz, S. Shi, J. A. Murakowski, G. J. Schneider, and D. W. Prather, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 091907 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Matsumoto, S. Fujita, and T. Baba, Opt. Express 13, 10768 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylén, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073920 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Fukazawa, T. Hirano, F. Ohno, and T. Baba, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 42, 696 (2004).

A. Husakou and J. Herrmann, Opt. Express 12, 6491 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, and E. Ozbay, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 207401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Guven, K. Aydin, K. B. Alici, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, Phys. Rev. B 70, 205125 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. B 68, 045115 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. B 65, 201104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

M. Notomi, Phys. Rev. B 62, 10696 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1212 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, Phys. Rev. B 58, R10096 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Alici, K. B.

K. Guven, K. Aydin, K. B. Alici, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, Phys. Rev. B 70, 205125 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Anand, S.

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylén, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073920 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Aydin, K.

K. Guven, K. Aydin, K. B. Alici, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, Phys. Rev. B 70, 205125 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, and E. Ozbay, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 207401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Baba, T.

T. Matsumoto, S. Fujita, and T. Baba, Opt. Express 13, 10768 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Fukazawa, T. Hirano, F. Ohno, and T. Baba, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 42, 696 (2004).

Berrier, A.

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylén, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073920 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Birks, T. B.

P. St. J. Russell and T. B. Birks, Photonic Band Gap Materials (Kluwer Academic, 1996).

Chen, C.

Z. Lu, C. Chen, C. A. Schuetz, S. Shi, J. A. Murakowski, G. J. Schneider, and D. W. Prather, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 091907 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cubukcu, E.

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, and E. Ozbay, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 207401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, S.

Fukazawa, T.

T. Fukazawa, T. Hirano, F. Ohno, and T. Baba, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 42, 696 (2004).

Guven, K.

K. Guven, K. Aydin, K. B. Alici, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, Phys. Rev. B 70, 205125 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Herrmann, J.

Hirano, T.

T. Fukazawa, T. Hirano, F. Ohno, and T. Baba, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 42, 696 (2004).

Husakou, A.

Joannopoulos, J. D.

C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. B 68, 045115 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. B 65, 201104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, S. G.

C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. B 68, 045115 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. B 65, 201104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kawakami, S.

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1212 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, Phys. Rev. B 58, R10096 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kawashima, T.

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1212 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, Phys. Rev. B 58, R10096 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kosaka, H.

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1212 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, Phys. Rev. B 58, R10096 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Z.

Z. Lu, C. Chen, C. A. Schuetz, S. Shi, J. A. Murakowski, G. J. Schneider, and D. W. Prather, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 091907 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Luo, C.

C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. B 68, 045115 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. B 65, 201104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Matsumoto, T.

Mulot, M.

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylén, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073920 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Murakowski, J. A.

Z. Lu, C. Chen, C. A. Schuetz, S. Shi, J. A. Murakowski, G. J. Schneider, and D. W. Prather, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 091907 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Notomi, M.

M. Notomi, Phys. Rev. B 62, 10696 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1212 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, Phys. Rev. B 58, R10096 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ohno, F.

T. Fukazawa, T. Hirano, F. Ohno, and T. Baba, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 42, 696 (2004).

Ozbay, E.

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, and E. Ozbay, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 207401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Guven, K. Aydin, K. B. Alici, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, Phys. Rev. B 70, 205125 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pendry, J. B.

C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. B 68, 045115 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Prather, D. W.

Z. Lu, C. Chen, C. A. Schuetz, S. Shi, J. A. Murakowski, G. J. Schneider, and D. W. Prather, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 091907 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, M.

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylén, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073920 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. St. J.

P. St. J. Russell and T. B. Birks, Photonic Band Gap Materials (Kluwer Academic, 1996).

Sato, T.

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1212 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, Phys. Rev. B 58, R10096 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, G. J.

Z. Lu, C. Chen, C. A. Schuetz, S. Shi, J. A. Murakowski, G. J. Schneider, and D. W. Prather, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 091907 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schuetz, C. A.

Z. Lu, C. Chen, C. A. Schuetz, S. Shi, J. A. Murakowski, G. J. Schneider, and D. W. Prather, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 091907 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shi, S.

Z. Lu, C. Chen, C. A. Schuetz, S. Shi, J. A. Murakowski, G. J. Schneider, and D. W. Prather, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 091907 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Soukoulis, C. M.

K. Guven, K. Aydin, K. B. Alici, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, Phys. Rev. B 70, 205125 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Swillo, M.

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylén, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073920 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Talneau, A.

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylén, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073920 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tamamura, T.

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1212 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, Phys. Rev. B 58, R10096 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Thylén, L.

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylén, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073920 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tomita, A.

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1212 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, Phys. Rev. B 58, R10096 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1212 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. Lu, C. Chen, C. A. Schuetz, S. Shi, J. A. Murakowski, G. J. Schneider, and D. W. Prather, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 091907 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1

T. Fukazawa, T. Hirano, F. Ohno, and T. Baba, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 42, 696 (2004).

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev. B

K. Guven, K. Aydin, K. B. Alici, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, Phys. Rev. B 70, 205125 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. B 65, 201104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, Phys. Rev. B 58, R10096 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Notomi, Phys. Rev. B 62, 10696 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. B 68, 045115 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, and E. Ozbay, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 207401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylén, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073920 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other

P. St. J. Russell and T. B. Birks, Photonic Band Gap Materials (Kluwer Academic, 1996).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Device structure and theoretical characteristics. (a) Total view of fabricated device. (b) Magnified view of PC with deformed air holes and corresponding dispersion surface. Thin curves are equifrequency contours. Solid and dashed thick curves indicate air light line and observable condition of radiated light by objective lens with NA = 0.5 , respectively. Arrows show Poynting vectors S inside the PC. (c) Ray tracing at a λ = 0.31 . (d) FDTD simulation of light propagation (square of magnetic field in vertical direction) at a λ = 0.31 .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

NFPs showing focusing of light. They were directly observed using out-of-plane radiation at λ = 1.26 to 1.32 μ m . At λ = 1.33 to 1.39 μ m , they were indirectly evaluated by arranging sliced NFPs of scattered light at the groove for multiple device samples with different L. The top of each NFP is the boundary between the Si slab and the PC.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental plots and theoretical curves of focusing characteristics. (a) FWHM of focused spot 2 w . (b) Focal length f. (c) NA.

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