Abstract

We report on random lasing from a dye-scatterer system directly excited by evanescent modes formed over a dielectric–dielectric interface. The system is quasi-two-dimensional because of the subwavelength exponential decay of the excitation energy. Spectral narrowing by a factor of 13 was obtained under diffusive scattering conditions. The peak intensity exhibited a unique dual-saturation behavior due to the localized nature of the excitation. We observed a reduction of threshold for samples with a higher dye concentration because of a larger excitation-state occupation number within the same interaction volume.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. "Feature on localization, multiple scattering, and lasing in random media," S.C.Rand, C.Soukoulis, and D.S.Wiersma, eds., J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 98-207 (2004).
  2. V. S. Letokhov, Sov. Phys. JETP 26, 835 (1968).
  3. N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, Nature 368, 436 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  4. B. R. Prasad, H. Ramachandran, A. K. Sood, C. K. Subramanian, and N. Kumar, Appl. Opt. 36, 30 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, H. C. Ong, S. T. Ho, J. Y. Dai, J. Y. Wu, and R. P. H. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3656 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, D. Z. Zhang, S.-H. Chang, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5584 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. Mujumdar, M. Ricci, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 053903 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. John and G. Pang, Phys. Rev. A 54, 3642 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. D. S. Wiersma and A. Lagendijk, Phys. Rev. E 54, 4256 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Vardeny, K. Yoshino, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughmann, Phys. Rev. B 59, 5284 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. E. P. Ippen and C. V. Shank, Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 301 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H.-J. Moon, Y.-T. Chough, and K. An, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3161 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. G. A. Berger, M. Kempe, and A. Z. Genack, Phys. Rev. E 56, 6118 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (1)

S. Mujumdar, M. Ricci, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 053903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

H.-J. Moon, Y.-T. Chough, and K. An, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3161 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, D. Z. Zhang, S.-H. Chang, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5584 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Vardeny, K. Yoshino, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughmann, Phys. Rev. B 59, 5284 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, H. C. Ong, S. T. Ho, J. Y. Dai, J. Y. Wu, and R. P. H. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3656 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

B. R. Prasad, H. Ramachandran, A. K. Sood, C. K. Subramanian, and N. Kumar, Appl. Opt. 36, 30 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Berger, M. Kempe, and A. Z. Genack, Phys. Rev. E 56, 6118 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

S. John and G. Pang, Phys. Rev. A 54, 3642 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Wiersma and A. Lagendijk, Phys. Rev. E 54, 4256 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, Nature 368, 436 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

E. P. Ippen and C. V. Shank, Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 301 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

V. S. Letokhov, Sov. Phys. JETP 26, 835 (1968).

An, K.

H.-J. Moon, Y.-T. Chough, and K. An, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3161 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balachandran, R. M.

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, Nature 368, 436 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Baughmann, R. H.

S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Vardeny, K. Yoshino, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughmann, Phys. Rev. B 59, 5284 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Berger, G. A.

G. A. Berger, M. Kempe, and A. Z. Genack, Phys. Rev. E 56, 6118 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cao, H.

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, D. Z. Zhang, S.-H. Chang, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5584 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, H. C. Ong, S. T. Ho, J. Y. Dai, J. Y. Wu, and R. P. H. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3656 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chang, R. P. H.

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, D. Z. Zhang, S.-H. Chang, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5584 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, H. C. Ong, S. T. Ho, J. Y. Dai, J. Y. Wu, and R. P. H. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3656 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S.-H.

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, D. Z. Zhang, S.-H. Chang, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5584 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chough, Y.-T.

H.-J. Moon, Y.-T. Chough, and K. An, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3161 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dai, J. Y.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, H. C. Ong, S. T. Ho, J. Y. Dai, J. Y. Wu, and R. P. H. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3656 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Frolov, S. V.

S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Vardeny, K. Yoshino, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughmann, Phys. Rev. B 59, 5284 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Genack, A. Z.

G. A. Berger, M. Kempe, and A. Z. Genack, Phys. Rev. E 56, 6118 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gomes, A. S. L.

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, Nature 368, 436 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ho, S. T.

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, D. Z. Zhang, S.-H. Chang, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5584 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, H. C. Ong, S. T. Ho, J. Y. Dai, J. Y. Wu, and R. P. H. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3656 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

E. P. Ippen and C. V. Shank, Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 301 (1972).
[CrossRef]

John, S.

S. John and G. Pang, Phys. Rev. A 54, 3642 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kempe, M.

G. A. Berger, M. Kempe, and A. Z. Genack, Phys. Rev. E 56, 6118 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, N.

B. R. Prasad, H. Ramachandran, A. K. Sood, C. K. Subramanian, and N. Kumar, Appl. Opt. 36, 30 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lagendijk, A.

D. S. Wiersma and A. Lagendijk, Phys. Rev. E 54, 4256 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lawandy, N. M.

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, Nature 368, 436 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Letokhov, V. S.

V. S. Letokhov, Sov. Phys. JETP 26, 835 (1968).

Liu, X.

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, D. Z. Zhang, S.-H. Chang, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5584 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moon, H.-J.

H.-J. Moon, Y.-T. Chough, and K. An, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3161 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mujumdar, S.

S. Mujumdar, M. Ricci, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 053903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ong, H. C.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, H. C. Ong, S. T. Ho, J. Y. Dai, J. Y. Wu, and R. P. H. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3656 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pang, G.

S. John and G. Pang, Phys. Rev. A 54, 3642 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prasad, B. R.

B. R. Prasad, H. Ramachandran, A. K. Sood, C. K. Subramanian, and N. Kumar, Appl. Opt. 36, 30 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ramachandran, H.

B. R. Prasad, H. Ramachandran, A. K. Sood, C. K. Subramanian, and N. Kumar, Appl. Opt. 36, 30 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ricci, M.

S. Mujumdar, M. Ricci, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 053903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sauvain, E.

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, Nature 368, 436 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Seelig, E. W.

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, D. Z. Zhang, S.-H. Chang, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5584 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shank, C. V.

E. P. Ippen and C. V. Shank, Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 301 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Sood, A. K.

B. R. Prasad, H. Ramachandran, A. K. Sood, C. K. Subramanian, and N. Kumar, Appl. Opt. 36, 30 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Subramanian, C. K.

B. R. Prasad, H. Ramachandran, A. K. Sood, C. K. Subramanian, and N. Kumar, Appl. Opt. 36, 30 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Torre, R.

S. Mujumdar, M. Ricci, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 053903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vardeny, Z. V.

S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Vardeny, K. Yoshino, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughmann, Phys. Rev. B 59, 5284 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wiersma, D. S.

S. Mujumdar, M. Ricci, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 053903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Wiersma and A. Lagendijk, Phys. Rev. E 54, 4256 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J. Y.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, H. C. Ong, S. T. Ho, J. Y. Dai, J. Y. Wu, and R. P. H. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3656 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J. Y.

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, D. Z. Zhang, S.-H. Chang, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5584 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshino, K.

S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Vardeny, K. Yoshino, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughmann, Phys. Rev. B 59, 5284 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zakhidov, A.

S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Vardeny, K. Yoshino, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughmann, Phys. Rev. B 59, 5284 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, D. Z.

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, D. Z. Zhang, S.-H. Chang, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5584 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, Y. G.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, H. C. Ong, S. T. Ho, J. Y. Dai, J. Y. Wu, and R. P. H. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3656 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

B. R. Prasad, H. Ramachandran, A. K. Sood, C. K. Subramanian, and N. Kumar, Appl. Opt. 36, 30 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, H. C. Ong, S. T. Ho, J. Y. Dai, J. Y. Wu, and R. P. H. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3656 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. P. Ippen and C. V. Shank, Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 301 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, Nature 368, 436 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

S. John and G. Pang, Phys. Rev. A 54, 3642 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Vardeny, K. Yoshino, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughmann, Phys. Rev. B 59, 5284 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (2)

G. A. Berger, M. Kempe, and A. Z. Genack, Phys. Rev. E 56, 6118 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Wiersma and A. Lagendijk, Phys. Rev. E 54, 4256 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, D. Z. Zhang, S.-H. Chang, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5584 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Mujumdar, M. Ricci, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 053903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-J. Moon, Y.-T. Chough, and K. An, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3161 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

V. S. Letokhov, Sov. Phys. JETP 26, 835 (1968).

Other (1)

"Feature on localization, multiple scattering, and lasing in random media," S.C.Rand, C.Soukoulis, and D.S.Wiersma, eds., J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 98-207 (2004).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for the evanescent-wave-pumped random laser. RAM, random amplifying medium. Other abbreviations defined in text.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Random lasing spectra from the pure dye and the scattering samples at E = 32.9 μ J . Curve d is scaled down by a factor of 25.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectral narrowing from the four samples.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Peak intensity of emission as a function of pump energy. The legend is same as in Fig. 3. Inset, simulated emission intensity from a pure dye (solid line, 10 3 M L ; dotted line, 10 2 M L ; dashed line, 5 × 10 4 M L ) excited by an evanescent wave.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spectral narrowing for the diffusive sample at three dye concentrations.

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