Abstract

A new general class of optical interferometers is proposed, and the physical principle of their operation is explained. They split the spectrum entering one input port among the interferometer arms in an arbitrarily chosen wavelength- and/or time-dependent manner but guarantee broadband constructive interference into a single output port by symmetry. The design relies only on time reversibility of Maxwell’s equations and a phase condition that holds for lossless, reflectionless four-ports. As an application, a new Vernier scheme is proposed to multiply the tuning and free spectral range of microphotonic add–drop filters. It provides effective suppression of both the amplitude and the phase response of unwanted resonant passbands.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. A. Haus, M. A. Popovic, and M. R. Watts, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1137 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. Jinguji and M. Kawachi, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 73 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. H. Henry, C. K. Madsen, and T. A. Strasser, "Article comprising a Bragg reflective Mach-Zehnder filter of reduced coupled dependence," U.S. patent 5,889,899 (March 30, 1999).
  4. K. Jinguji, N. Takato, Y. Hida, T. Kitoh, and M. Kawachi, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2301 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. A. Popovic, T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kärtner, and H. I. Smith, Opt. Lett. 31, 2571 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. T. Chu, B. Little, V. Van, J. Hryniewicz, P. Absil, F. Johnson, D. Gill, O. King, F. Seiferth, M. Trakalo, and J. Shanton, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 95of OSA TOPS (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper PDP9.
  7. Y. Yanagase, S. Suzuki, Y. Kokobun, and S. T. Chu, J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1525 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Margalit, "Tunable optical filtering device and method," U.S. patent 6,839,482 B2 (January 4, 2005).

2006 (2)

2002 (1)

1996 (1)

K. Jinguji, N. Takato, Y. Hida, T. Kitoh, and M. Kawachi, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2301 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

K. Jinguji and M. Kawachi, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 73 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Absil, P.

S. T. Chu, B. Little, V. Van, J. Hryniewicz, P. Absil, F. Johnson, D. Gill, O. King, F. Seiferth, M. Trakalo, and J. Shanton, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 95of OSA TOPS (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper PDP9.

Barwicz, T.

Chu, S. T.

Y. Yanagase, S. Suzuki, Y. Kokobun, and S. T. Chu, J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1525 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Chu, B. Little, V. Van, J. Hryniewicz, P. Absil, F. Johnson, D. Gill, O. King, F. Seiferth, M. Trakalo, and J. Shanton, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 95of OSA TOPS (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper PDP9.

Gill, D.

S. T. Chu, B. Little, V. Van, J. Hryniewicz, P. Absil, F. Johnson, D. Gill, O. King, F. Seiferth, M. Trakalo, and J. Shanton, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 95of OSA TOPS (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper PDP9.

Haus, H. A.

H. A. Haus, M. A. Popovic, and M. R. Watts, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1137 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Henry, C. H.

C. H. Henry, C. K. Madsen, and T. A. Strasser, "Article comprising a Bragg reflective Mach-Zehnder filter of reduced coupled dependence," U.S. patent 5,889,899 (March 30, 1999).

Hida, Y.

K. Jinguji, N. Takato, Y. Hida, T. Kitoh, and M. Kawachi, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2301 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hryniewicz, J.

S. T. Chu, B. Little, V. Van, J. Hryniewicz, P. Absil, F. Johnson, D. Gill, O. King, F. Seiferth, M. Trakalo, and J. Shanton, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 95of OSA TOPS (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper PDP9.

Ippen, E. P.

Jinguji, K.

K. Jinguji, N. Takato, Y. Hida, T. Kitoh, and M. Kawachi, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2301 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Jinguji and M. Kawachi, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 73 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, F.

S. T. Chu, B. Little, V. Van, J. Hryniewicz, P. Absil, F. Johnson, D. Gill, O. King, F. Seiferth, M. Trakalo, and J. Shanton, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 95of OSA TOPS (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper PDP9.

Kärtner, F. X.

Kawachi, M.

K. Jinguji, N. Takato, Y. Hida, T. Kitoh, and M. Kawachi, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2301 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Jinguji and M. Kawachi, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 73 (1995).
[CrossRef]

King, O.

S. T. Chu, B. Little, V. Van, J. Hryniewicz, P. Absil, F. Johnson, D. Gill, O. King, F. Seiferth, M. Trakalo, and J. Shanton, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 95of OSA TOPS (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper PDP9.

Kitoh, T.

K. Jinguji, N. Takato, Y. Hida, T. Kitoh, and M. Kawachi, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2301 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kokobun, Y.

Little, B.

S. T. Chu, B. Little, V. Van, J. Hryniewicz, P. Absil, F. Johnson, D. Gill, O. King, F. Seiferth, M. Trakalo, and J. Shanton, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 95of OSA TOPS (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper PDP9.

Madsen, C. K.

C. H. Henry, C. K. Madsen, and T. A. Strasser, "Article comprising a Bragg reflective Mach-Zehnder filter of reduced coupled dependence," U.S. patent 5,889,899 (March 30, 1999).

Margalit, M.

M. Margalit, "Tunable optical filtering device and method," U.S. patent 6,839,482 B2 (January 4, 2005).

Popovic, M. A.

Rakich, P. T.

Seiferth, F.

S. T. Chu, B. Little, V. Van, J. Hryniewicz, P. Absil, F. Johnson, D. Gill, O. King, F. Seiferth, M. Trakalo, and J. Shanton, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 95of OSA TOPS (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper PDP9.

Shanton, J.

S. T. Chu, B. Little, V. Van, J. Hryniewicz, P. Absil, F. Johnson, D. Gill, O. King, F. Seiferth, M. Trakalo, and J. Shanton, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 95of OSA TOPS (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper PDP9.

Smith, H. I.

Socci, L.

Strasser, T. A.

C. H. Henry, C. K. Madsen, and T. A. Strasser, "Article comprising a Bragg reflective Mach-Zehnder filter of reduced coupled dependence," U.S. patent 5,889,899 (March 30, 1999).

Suzuki, S.

Takato, N.

K. Jinguji, N. Takato, Y. Hida, T. Kitoh, and M. Kawachi, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2301 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Trakalo, M.

S. T. Chu, B. Little, V. Van, J. Hryniewicz, P. Absil, F. Johnson, D. Gill, O. King, F. Seiferth, M. Trakalo, and J. Shanton, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 95of OSA TOPS (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper PDP9.

Van, V.

S. T. Chu, B. Little, V. Van, J. Hryniewicz, P. Absil, F. Johnson, D. Gill, O. King, F. Seiferth, M. Trakalo, and J. Shanton, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 95of OSA TOPS (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper PDP9.

Watts, M. R.

Yanagase, Y.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

H. A. Haus, M. A. Popovic, and M. R. Watts, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1137 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

K. Jinguji and M. Kawachi, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 73 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Jinguji, N. Takato, Y. Hida, T. Kitoh, and M. Kawachi, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2301 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yanagase, S. Suzuki, Y. Kokobun, and S. T. Chu, J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1525 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (3)

S. T. Chu, B. Little, V. Van, J. Hryniewicz, P. Absil, F. Johnson, D. Gill, O. King, F. Seiferth, M. Trakalo, and J. Shanton, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 95of OSA TOPS (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper PDP9.

C. H. Henry, C. K. Madsen, and T. A. Strasser, "Article comprising a Bragg reflective Mach-Zehnder filter of reduced coupled dependence," U.S. patent 5,889,899 (March 30, 1999).

M. Margalit, "Tunable optical filtering device and method," U.S. patent 6,839,482 B2 (January 4, 2005).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) General universally balanced interferometer, with a filter inserted in one arm. (b) Illustration of arbitrary splitting “mirror” A (may be nonreciprocal). (c) Folded UBI (requires a nonreciprocal π DPS).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Canonical model of arbitrary LR four-port mirrors and constructed UBI. (a), (b) Excitation at port 1 or 2 gives π 2 ϕ o phase; (c) cascading the splitter from (a) and the time-reversed and 180°-rotated version of (b) cancels arbitrary phase ϕ o . If the remaining broadband π phase shift is compensated for, a UBI is obtained.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Nondispersive FSR multiplier ( × 3 ) for an add–drop filter: (a) UBI with lattice-filter splitter/combiner and microring filter in one arm; (b), (c) splitter A and total output port amplitude and group delay responses without a ring filter show dispersionless broadband UBI operation; (d), (e) drop and output port responses with a filter show a small group delay at suppressed resonances.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

U ̿ = e i θ o [ 1 κ e i θ 1 i κ e i θ 2 i κ e i θ 2 1 κ e i θ 1 ] = [ e i ( θ 1 + θ 2 ) 1 ] [ 1 κ i κ i κ 1 κ ] [ e i θ 2 e i θ 1 ] e i θ o ,
ϕ 11 + ϕ 22 ϕ 12 ϕ 21 = ± π .
T ̿ = [ 0 1 1 0 ] U ̿ tr [ 0 1 1 0 ] [ 1 0 0 e i π ] U ̿ .
T ̿ = e i 2 θ o [ 1 0 0 1 ] .

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