Abstract

We report what is to our knowledge the first photochemical fabrication of a long-period grating in a pure-fused-silica photonic crystal fiber. The inscription technique is based on a two-photon absorption mechanism and does not require a specially designed photonic crystal fiber with a photosensitive Ge-doped core. The characteristic fluence value for the inscription is an order of magnitude less than that for a standard telecom fiber irradiated under similar conditions with the same grating parameters.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. Kakarantzas, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 27, 101 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. Zhu, P. Shum, J.-H. Chong, M. K. Rao, and C. Lu, Opt. Lett. 28, 2467 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. G. Humbert, A. Malki, S. Février, P. Roy, and D. Pagnoux, Electron. Lett. 39, 349 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. Morishita and Y. Miyake, J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 625 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Dobb, K. Kalli, and D. Webb, Electron. Lett. 40, 657 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. H. Lim, K. S. Lee, J. C. Kim, and B. H. Lee, Opt. Lett. 29, 331 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. B. J. Eggleton, P. S. Westbrook, R. S. Windeler, S. Spalter, and T. A. Strasser, Opt. Lett. 24, 1460 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Dragomir, J. G. McInerney, and D. N. Nikogosyan, Appl. Opt. 41, 4365 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Dragomir, D. N. Nikogosyan, K. Zagorulko, and P. G. Kryukov, in Proc. SPIE 4876, 313 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. I. Kalachev, V. Pureur, and D. N. Nikogosyan, Opt. Commun. 246, 107 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. I. Kalachev, V. Pureur, and D. N. Nikogosyan, Opt. Commun. 251, 229 (2005), erratum of Ref. .
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. I. Kalachev, D. N. Nikogosyan, and G. Brambilla, J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2568 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Z. A. Weinberg, G. W. Rubloff, and E. Bassous, Phys. Rev. B 19, 3107 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  14. L. B. Fu, G. D. Marshall, G. A. Bolger, P. Steinvurzel, E. C. Mägi, M. J. Withford, and B. J. Eggleton, Electron. Lett. 41, 638 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. N. Ng and K. S. Chiang, Opt. Commun. 208, 321 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  16. K. P. Chen, P. R. Herman, R. Tam, and J. Zhang, Electron. Lett. 36, 2000 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. A. Slattery, D. N. Nikogosyan, and G. Brambilla, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 354 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. A. Slattery, D. N. Nikogosyan, and G. Brambilla, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 1143 (2005), erratum of Ref. .
    [CrossRef]
  19. C. Caucheteur, A. A. Fotiadi, P. Megret, G. Brambilla, S. A. Slattery, and D. N. Nikogosyan, "Polarization properties of a long-period grating inscribed in a pure-fused-silica photonic crystal fiber" (submitted to Opt. Lett.).

2005 (6)

A. I. Kalachev, V. Pureur, and D. N. Nikogosyan, Opt. Commun. 246, 107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Kalachev, V. Pureur, and D. N. Nikogosyan, Opt. Commun. 251, 229 (2005), erratum of Ref. .
[CrossRef]

A. I. Kalachev, D. N. Nikogosyan, and G. Brambilla, J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2568 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Fu, G. D. Marshall, G. A. Bolger, P. Steinvurzel, E. C. Mägi, M. J. Withford, and B. J. Eggleton, Electron. Lett. 41, 638 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Slattery, D. N. Nikogosyan, and G. Brambilla, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 354 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Slattery, D. N. Nikogosyan, and G. Brambilla, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 1143 (2005), erratum of Ref. .
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

2003 (3)

Y. Zhu, P. Shum, J.-H. Chong, M. K. Rao, and C. Lu, Opt. Lett. 28, 2467 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Humbert, A. Malki, S. Février, P. Roy, and D. Pagnoux, Electron. Lett. 39, 349 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Dragomir, D. N. Nikogosyan, K. Zagorulko, and P. G. Kryukov, in Proc. SPIE 4876, 313 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

2000 (1)

K. P. Chen, P. R. Herman, R. Tam, and J. Zhang, Electron. Lett. 36, 2000 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1979 (1)

Z. A. Weinberg, G. W. Rubloff, and E. Bassous, Phys. Rev. B 19, 3107 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Bassous, E.

Z. A. Weinberg, G. W. Rubloff, and E. Bassous, Phys. Rev. B 19, 3107 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Birks, T. A.

Bolger, G. A.

L. B. Fu, G. D. Marshall, G. A. Bolger, P. Steinvurzel, E. C. Mägi, M. J. Withford, and B. J. Eggleton, Electron. Lett. 41, 638 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Brambilla, G.

S. A. Slattery, D. N. Nikogosyan, and G. Brambilla, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 354 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Slattery, D. N. Nikogosyan, and G. Brambilla, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 1143 (2005), erratum of Ref. .
[CrossRef]

A. I. Kalachev, D. N. Nikogosyan, and G. Brambilla, J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2568 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Caucheteur, A. A. Fotiadi, P. Megret, G. Brambilla, S. A. Slattery, and D. N. Nikogosyan, "Polarization properties of a long-period grating inscribed in a pure-fused-silica photonic crystal fiber" (submitted to Opt. Lett.).

Caucheteur, C.

C. Caucheteur, A. A. Fotiadi, P. Megret, G. Brambilla, S. A. Slattery, and D. N. Nikogosyan, "Polarization properties of a long-period grating inscribed in a pure-fused-silica photonic crystal fiber" (submitted to Opt. Lett.).

Chen, K. P.

K. P. Chen, P. R. Herman, R. Tam, and J. Zhang, Electron. Lett. 36, 2000 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, K. S.

M. N. Ng and K. S. Chiang, Opt. Commun. 208, 321 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chong, J.-H.

Dobb, H.

H. Dobb, K. Kalli, and D. Webb, Electron. Lett. 40, 657 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dragomir, A.

A. Dragomir, D. N. Nikogosyan, K. Zagorulko, and P. G. Kryukov, in Proc. SPIE 4876, 313 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Dragomir, J. G. McInerney, and D. N. Nikogosyan, Appl. Opt. 41, 4365 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

L. B. Fu, G. D. Marshall, G. A. Bolger, P. Steinvurzel, E. C. Mägi, M. J. Withford, and B. J. Eggleton, Electron. Lett. 41, 638 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Eggleton, P. S. Westbrook, R. S. Windeler, S. Spalter, and T. A. Strasser, Opt. Lett. 24, 1460 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Février, S.

G. Humbert, A. Malki, S. Février, P. Roy, and D. Pagnoux, Electron. Lett. 39, 349 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fotiadi, A. A.

C. Caucheteur, A. A. Fotiadi, P. Megret, G. Brambilla, S. A. Slattery, and D. N. Nikogosyan, "Polarization properties of a long-period grating inscribed in a pure-fused-silica photonic crystal fiber" (submitted to Opt. Lett.).

Fu, L. B.

L. B. Fu, G. D. Marshall, G. A. Bolger, P. Steinvurzel, E. C. Mägi, M. J. Withford, and B. J. Eggleton, Electron. Lett. 41, 638 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Herman, P. R.

K. P. Chen, P. R. Herman, R. Tam, and J. Zhang, Electron. Lett. 36, 2000 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Humbert, G.

G. Humbert, A. Malki, S. Février, P. Roy, and D. Pagnoux, Electron. Lett. 39, 349 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kakarantzas, G.

Kalachev, A. I.

A. I. Kalachev, D. N. Nikogosyan, and G. Brambilla, J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2568 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Kalachev, V. Pureur, and D. N. Nikogosyan, Opt. Commun. 246, 107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Kalachev, V. Pureur, and D. N. Nikogosyan, Opt. Commun. 251, 229 (2005), erratum of Ref. .
[CrossRef]

Kalli, K.

H. Dobb, K. Kalli, and D. Webb, Electron. Lett. 40, 657 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. C.

Kryukov, P. G.

A. Dragomir, D. N. Nikogosyan, K. Zagorulko, and P. G. Kryukov, in Proc. SPIE 4876, 313 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B. H.

Lee, K. S.

Lim, J. H.

Lu, C.

Mägi, E. C.

L. B. Fu, G. D. Marshall, G. A. Bolger, P. Steinvurzel, E. C. Mägi, M. J. Withford, and B. J. Eggleton, Electron. Lett. 41, 638 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Malki, A.

G. Humbert, A. Malki, S. Février, P. Roy, and D. Pagnoux, Electron. Lett. 39, 349 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Marshall, G. D.

L. B. Fu, G. D. Marshall, G. A. Bolger, P. Steinvurzel, E. C. Mägi, M. J. Withford, and B. J. Eggleton, Electron. Lett. 41, 638 (2005).
[CrossRef]

McInerney, J. G.

Megret, P.

C. Caucheteur, A. A. Fotiadi, P. Megret, G. Brambilla, S. A. Slattery, and D. N. Nikogosyan, "Polarization properties of a long-period grating inscribed in a pure-fused-silica photonic crystal fiber" (submitted to Opt. Lett.).

Miyake, Y.

Morishita, K.

Ng, M. N.

M. N. Ng and K. S. Chiang, Opt. Commun. 208, 321 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nikogosyan, D. N.

A. I. Kalachev, V. Pureur, and D. N. Nikogosyan, Opt. Commun. 246, 107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Kalachev, V. Pureur, and D. N. Nikogosyan, Opt. Commun. 251, 229 (2005), erratum of Ref. .
[CrossRef]

S. A. Slattery, D. N. Nikogosyan, and G. Brambilla, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 354 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Kalachev, D. N. Nikogosyan, and G. Brambilla, J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2568 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Slattery, D. N. Nikogosyan, and G. Brambilla, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 1143 (2005), erratum of Ref. .
[CrossRef]

A. Dragomir, D. N. Nikogosyan, K. Zagorulko, and P. G. Kryukov, in Proc. SPIE 4876, 313 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Dragomir, J. G. McInerney, and D. N. Nikogosyan, Appl. Opt. 41, 4365 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Caucheteur, A. A. Fotiadi, P. Megret, G. Brambilla, S. A. Slattery, and D. N. Nikogosyan, "Polarization properties of a long-period grating inscribed in a pure-fused-silica photonic crystal fiber" (submitted to Opt. Lett.).

Pagnoux, D.

G. Humbert, A. Malki, S. Février, P. Roy, and D. Pagnoux, Electron. Lett. 39, 349 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pureur, V.

A. I. Kalachev, V. Pureur, and D. N. Nikogosyan, Opt. Commun. 246, 107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Kalachev, V. Pureur, and D. N. Nikogosyan, Opt. Commun. 251, 229 (2005), erratum of Ref. .
[CrossRef]

Rao, M. K.

Roy, P.

G. Humbert, A. Malki, S. Février, P. Roy, and D. Pagnoux, Electron. Lett. 39, 349 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rubloff, G. W.

Z. A. Weinberg, G. W. Rubloff, and E. Bassous, Phys. Rev. B 19, 3107 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. St. J.

Shum, P.

Slattery, S. A.

S. A. Slattery, D. N. Nikogosyan, and G. Brambilla, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 354 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Slattery, D. N. Nikogosyan, and G. Brambilla, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 1143 (2005), erratum of Ref. .
[CrossRef]

C. Caucheteur, A. A. Fotiadi, P. Megret, G. Brambilla, S. A. Slattery, and D. N. Nikogosyan, "Polarization properties of a long-period grating inscribed in a pure-fused-silica photonic crystal fiber" (submitted to Opt. Lett.).

Spalter, S.

Steinvurzel, P.

L. B. Fu, G. D. Marshall, G. A. Bolger, P. Steinvurzel, E. C. Mägi, M. J. Withford, and B. J. Eggleton, Electron. Lett. 41, 638 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Strasser, T. A.

Tam, R.

K. P. Chen, P. R. Herman, R. Tam, and J. Zhang, Electron. Lett. 36, 2000 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Webb, D.

H. Dobb, K. Kalli, and D. Webb, Electron. Lett. 40, 657 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Weinberg, Z. A.

Z. A. Weinberg, G. W. Rubloff, and E. Bassous, Phys. Rev. B 19, 3107 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Westbrook, P. S.

Windeler, R. S.

Withford, M. J.

L. B. Fu, G. D. Marshall, G. A. Bolger, P. Steinvurzel, E. C. Mägi, M. J. Withford, and B. J. Eggleton, Electron. Lett. 41, 638 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zagorulko, K.

A. Dragomir, D. N. Nikogosyan, K. Zagorulko, and P. G. Kryukov, in Proc. SPIE 4876, 313 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

K. P. Chen, P. R. Herman, R. Tam, and J. Zhang, Electron. Lett. 36, 2000 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Y.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (4)

H. Dobb, K. Kalli, and D. Webb, Electron. Lett. 40, 657 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Humbert, A. Malki, S. Février, P. Roy, and D. Pagnoux, Electron. Lett. 39, 349 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Chen, P. R. Herman, R. Tam, and J. Zhang, Electron. Lett. 36, 2000 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Fu, G. D. Marshall, G. A. Bolger, P. Steinvurzel, E. C. Mägi, M. J. Withford, and B. J. Eggleton, Electron. Lett. 41, 638 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Commun. (3)

A. I. Kalachev, V. Pureur, and D. N. Nikogosyan, Opt. Commun. 246, 107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Kalachev, V. Pureur, and D. N. Nikogosyan, Opt. Commun. 251, 229 (2005), erratum of Ref. .
[CrossRef]

M. N. Ng and K. S. Chiang, Opt. Commun. 208, 321 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

Z. A. Weinberg, G. W. Rubloff, and E. Bassous, Phys. Rev. B 19, 3107 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

A. Dragomir, D. N. Nikogosyan, K. Zagorulko, and P. G. Kryukov, in Proc. SPIE 4876, 313 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

C. Caucheteur, A. A. Fotiadi, P. Megret, G. Brambilla, S. A. Slattery, and D. N. Nikogosyan, "Polarization properties of a long-period grating inscribed in a pure-fused-silica photonic crystal fiber" (submitted to Opt. Lett.).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental graphs related to an LPFG inscribed in hydrogenated ESM-12-01 fiber with high-intensity 264 nm femtosecond pulses: (a) transmission loss spectrum recorded with an irradiation intensity of 300 GW cm 2 and total incident fluence of 10 J cm 2 ; (b) shift of wavelengths corresponding to the transmission loss peaks A, B, C, D, and E (designated in the spectrum above) versus the total incident fluence; (c) transmission loss amplitudes for the peaks A, B, C, D, and E versus the total incident fluence.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental graphs related to an LPFG inscribed in H 2 -loaded SMF-28 fiber with high-intensity 264 nm femtosecond pulses: (a) transmission loss spectrum recorded with an irradiation intensity of 310 GW cm 2 and total incident fluence of 157 J cm 2 (the peak K at this fluence value moved beyond 1700 nm ); (b) shift of wavelengths corresponding to the transmission loss peaks K, L, M, and N versus the total incident fluence; (c) transmission loss amplitudes for the peaks K, L, M, and N versus the total incident fluence.

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