Abstract

We demonstrate low-loss anamorphic transitions between circular and rectangular fiber cores with aspect ratios up to 5:1, and hence improved coupling from a diode laser by using only a spherical lens. Differential hole pressurization and localized heating of a stock photonic crystal fiber inflates the holes at different rates. Some holes are plugged in the fiber end face where pressure is applied, so they remain at ambient pressure. Alternatively, holes of different sizes expand at different rates because the effective pressure due to surface tension differs.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. Shigihara, K. Shiraishi, and S. Kawakami, J. Appl. Phys. 60, 4293 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. D. Hussey, T. A. Birks, A. M. Wingfield, A. Niu, R. Kenny, and L. Dong, Electron. Lett. 25, 1419 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Choi and K. Oh, Opt. Commun. 222, 213 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. W. J. Wadsworth, A. Witkowska, S. G. Leon-Saval, and T. A. Birks, Opt. Express 13, 6541 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. K. Lai, A. Witkowska, S. G. Leon-Saval, W. J. Wadsworth, and T. A. Birks, in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communications Conference (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper PDP4.
  6. A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, J. Arriaga, B. J. Mangan, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 25, 1325 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. W. Snyder and X.-H. Zheng, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 600 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Nasilowski, T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Golojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, Appl. Phys. B 81, 325 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. W. Belardi, G. Bouwmans, L. Provino, and M. Douay, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1558 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. Okamoto and J. Noda, Electron. Lett. 22, 211 (1986).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (3)

T. Nasilowski, T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Golojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, Appl. Phys. B 81, 325 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Belardi, G. Bouwmans, L. Provino, and M. Douay, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1558 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Wadsworth, A. Witkowska, S. G. Leon-Saval, and T. A. Birks, Opt. Express 13, 6541 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

S. Choi and K. Oh, Opt. Commun. 222, 213 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1989 (1)

C. D. Hussey, T. A. Birks, A. M. Wingfield, A. Niu, R. Kenny, and L. Dong, Electron. Lett. 25, 1419 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986 (3)

K. Shigihara, K. Shiraishi, and S. Kawakami, J. Appl. Phys. 60, 4293 (1986).
[CrossRef]

K. Okamoto and J. Noda, Electron. Lett. 22, 211 (1986).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Snyder and X.-H. Zheng, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 600 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Arriaga, J.

Belardi, W.

W. Belardi, G. Bouwmans, L. Provino, and M. Douay, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1558 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Berghmans, F.

T. Nasilowski, T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Golojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, Appl. Phys. B 81, 325 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Birks, T. A.

W. J. Wadsworth, A. Witkowska, S. G. Leon-Saval, and T. A. Birks, Opt. Express 13, 6541 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, J. Arriaga, B. J. Mangan, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 25, 1325 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Hussey, T. A. Birks, A. M. Wingfield, A. Niu, R. Kenny, and L. Dong, Electron. Lett. 25, 1419 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. Lai, A. Witkowska, S. G. Leon-Saval, W. J. Wadsworth, and T. A. Birks, in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communications Conference (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper PDP4.

Bouwmans, G.

W. Belardi, G. Bouwmans, L. Provino, and M. Douay, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1558 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S.

S. Choi and K. Oh, Opt. Commun. 222, 213 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dong, L.

C. D. Hussey, T. A. Birks, A. M. Wingfield, A. Niu, R. Kenny, and L. Dong, Electron. Lett. 25, 1419 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Douay, M.

W. Belardi, G. Bouwmans, L. Provino, and M. Douay, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1558 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Golojuch, G.

T. Nasilowski, T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Golojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, Appl. Phys. B 81, 325 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hussey, C. D.

C. D. Hussey, T. A. Birks, A. M. Wingfield, A. Niu, R. Kenny, and L. Dong, Electron. Lett. 25, 1419 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kawakami, S.

K. Shigihara, K. Shiraishi, and S. Kawakami, J. Appl. Phys. 60, 4293 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Kenny, R.

C. D. Hussey, T. A. Birks, A. M. Wingfield, A. Niu, R. Kenny, and L. Dong, Electron. Lett. 25, 1419 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Knight, J. C.

Lai, K.

K. Lai, A. Witkowska, S. G. Leon-Saval, W. J. Wadsworth, and T. A. Birks, in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communications Conference (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper PDP4.

Leon-Saval, S. G.

W. J. Wadsworth, A. Witkowska, S. G. Leon-Saval, and T. A. Birks, Opt. Express 13, 6541 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Lai, A. Witkowska, S. G. Leon-Saval, W. J. Wadsworth, and T. A. Birks, in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communications Conference (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper PDP4.

Makara, M.

T. Nasilowski, T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Golojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, Appl. Phys. B 81, 325 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mangan, B. J.

Martynkien, T.

T. Nasilowski, T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Golojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, Appl. Phys. B 81, 325 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mergo, P.

T. Nasilowski, T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Golojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, Appl. Phys. B 81, 325 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nasilowski, T.

T. Nasilowski, T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Golojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, Appl. Phys. B 81, 325 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Niu, A.

C. D. Hussey, T. A. Birks, A. M. Wingfield, A. Niu, R. Kenny, and L. Dong, Electron. Lett. 25, 1419 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Noda, J.

K. Okamoto and J. Noda, Electron. Lett. 22, 211 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Oh, K.

S. Choi and K. Oh, Opt. Commun. 222, 213 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, K.

K. Okamoto and J. Noda, Electron. Lett. 22, 211 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Olszewski, J.

T. Nasilowski, T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Golojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, Appl. Phys. B 81, 325 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ortigosa-Blanch, A.

Provino, L.

W. Belardi, G. Bouwmans, L. Provino, and M. Douay, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1558 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. St. J.

Shigihara, K.

K. Shigihara, K. Shiraishi, and S. Kawakami, J. Appl. Phys. 60, 4293 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Shiraishi, K.

K. Shigihara, K. Shiraishi, and S. Kawakami, J. Appl. Phys. 60, 4293 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Snyder, A. W.

Statkiewicz, G.

T. Nasilowski, T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Golojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, Appl. Phys. B 81, 325 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Szpulak, M.

T. Nasilowski, T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Golojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, Appl. Phys. B 81, 325 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Thienpont, H.

T. Nasilowski, T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Golojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, Appl. Phys. B 81, 325 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Urbanczyk, W.

T. Nasilowski, T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Golojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, Appl. Phys. B 81, 325 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wadsworth, W. J.

W. J. Wadsworth, A. Witkowska, S. G. Leon-Saval, and T. A. Birks, Opt. Express 13, 6541 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, J. Arriaga, B. J. Mangan, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 25, 1325 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Lai, A. Witkowska, S. G. Leon-Saval, W. J. Wadsworth, and T. A. Birks, in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communications Conference (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper PDP4.

Wingfield, A. M.

C. D. Hussey, T. A. Birks, A. M. Wingfield, A. Niu, R. Kenny, and L. Dong, Electron. Lett. 25, 1419 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Witkowska, A.

W. J. Wadsworth, A. Witkowska, S. G. Leon-Saval, and T. A. Birks, Opt. Express 13, 6541 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Lai, A. Witkowska, S. G. Leon-Saval, W. J. Wadsworth, and T. A. Birks, in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communications Conference (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper PDP4.

Wojcik, J.

T. Nasilowski, T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Golojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, Appl. Phys. B 81, 325 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, X.-H.

Appl. Phys. B (1)

T. Nasilowski, T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Golojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, Appl. Phys. B 81, 325 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

C. D. Hussey, T. A. Birks, A. M. Wingfield, A. Niu, R. Kenny, and L. Dong, Electron. Lett. 25, 1419 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. Okamoto and J. Noda, Electron. Lett. 22, 211 (1986).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

W. Belardi, G. Bouwmans, L. Provino, and M. Douay, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1558 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Shigihara, K. Shiraishi, and S. Kawakami, J. Appl. Phys. 60, 4293 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. Choi and K. Oh, Opt. Commun. 222, 213 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (1)

K. Lai, A. Witkowska, S. G. Leon-Saval, W. J. Wadsworth, and T. A. Birks, in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communications Conference (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper PDP4.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic longitudinal cross section of a PCF with selected holes plugged with glue at one end. If increased pressure P is then applied to that end, the plugged holes remain at atmospheric pressure P atm . The pressurized open holes inflate on heating, while plugged holes collapse to add solid material to the core if it is adjacent. Two gradual transitions along the fiber are formed by varying the hot-zone length.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Micrographs of fiber A (a) before and (b) after inflation and tapering with one hole plugged next to the core (parasitic cores formed by the unintentional plugging of holes by condensation did not affect light in the central core). (c) Measured polarization beating.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Fiber A (a) with two holes plugged each side of the core along the line indicated, (b) after inflation, and (c) after tapering. (d) Output far- and (inset) near-field images at 1000 nm , not to scale but oriented the same way.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Fiber A after inflation to give an annular core. (b) Output near-field image at 1000 nm , not to scale. (c) Fiber A after inflation to give an expanded core, with (inset) the near-field image for visible light, not to scale. (d) Fiber A after inflation to give a separate second core.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Fiber B (a) before and (b) after inflation. (c) Output images of far field for visible light and (inset) near field at 1000 nm , not to scale.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Output far-field images at 658 nm from (a) the laser and (b) the rectangular fiber core.

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