Abstract

Large-area surface-plasmon polariton (SPP) interference lithography is presented, which uses an attenuated total reflection-coupling mode to excite the interference of the SPPs. The interference of the SPPs causes a highly directional intensity range in a finite depth of the electric field, which is good for noncontact. Finite-difference time-domain simulations of the interference on a thin resist layer show that broad-beam illumination with a p-polarized light at a wavelength of 441nm can produce features as small as 60nm with high contrast, smaller than λ7. Our results illustrate the potential for patterning periodic structures over large areas at low cost.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2006 (1)

J. C. Martinez-Anton, J. Opt. A 8, s213 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

Z. W. Liu, Q. H. Wei, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 5, 957 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ohdaira, S. Hoshiyama, T. Kawakami, K. Shinbo, K. Kato, and F. Kaneko, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 051102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

X. G. Luo and T. Ishihara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4780 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

H. H. Solak and C. David, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 2883 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

2000 (2)

M. M. Alkaisi, R. J. Blaikie, and S. J. McNab, Microelectron. Eng. 53, 237 (2000).
[CrossRef]

X. Caide and S. F. Sui, Sens. Actuators B 66, 174 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

V. Silin and A. Plant, Trends Biotechnol. 15, 353 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

J. P. Spallas, A. M. Hawryluk, and D. R. Kania, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 1973 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

J. P. Berenger, Comput. Phys. 114, 185 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1983 (1)

Alkaisi, M. M.

M. M. Alkaisi, R. J. Blaikie, and S. J. McNab, Microelectron. Eng. 53, 237 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Berenger, J. P.

J. P. Berenger, Comput. Phys. 114, 185 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Blaikie, R. J.

R. J. Blaikie and S. J. McNab, Appl. Opt. 40, 1692 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Alkaisi, R. J. Blaikie, and S. J. McNab, Microelectron. Eng. 53, 237 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Caide, X.

X. Caide and S. F. Sui, Sens. Actuators B 66, 174 (2000).
[CrossRef]

David, C.

H. H. Solak and C. David, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 2883 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ghaemi, H. F.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hawryluk, A. M.

J. P. Spallas, A. M. Hawryluk, and D. R. Kania, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 1973 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hoshiyama, S.

Y. Ohdaira, S. Hoshiyama, T. Kawakami, K. Shinbo, K. Kato, and F. Kaneko, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 051102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ishihara, T.

X. G. Luo and T. Ishihara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4780 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kaneko, F.

Y. Ohdaira, S. Hoshiyama, T. Kawakami, K. Shinbo, K. Kato, and F. Kaneko, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 051102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kania, D. R.

J. P. Spallas, A. M. Hawryluk, and D. R. Kania, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 1973 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kato, K.

Y. Ohdaira, S. Hoshiyama, T. Kawakami, K. Shinbo, K. Kato, and F. Kaneko, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 051102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kawakami, T.

Y. Ohdaira, S. Hoshiyama, T. Kawakami, K. Shinbo, K. Kato, and F. Kaneko, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 051102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kawata, S.

Lezec, H. J.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z. W.

Z. W. Liu, Q. H. Wei, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 5, 957 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, X. G.

X. G. Luo and T. Ishihara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4780 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Martinez-Anton, J. C.

J. C. Martinez-Anton, J. Opt. A 8, s213 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Matsubara, K.

McNab, S. J.

R. J. Blaikie and S. J. McNab, Appl. Opt. 40, 1692 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Alkaisi, R. J. Blaikie, and S. J. McNab, Microelectron. Eng. 53, 237 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Minami, S.

Moreau, W. M.

W. M. Moreau, Semiconductor Lithography: Principles, Practices, and Materials (Plenum, 1998).

Ohdaira, Y.

Y. Ohdaira, S. Hoshiyama, T. Kawakami, K. Shinbo, K. Kato, and F. Kaneko, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 051102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Plant, A.

V. Silin and A. Plant, Trends Biotechnol. 15, 353 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Quail, J. C.

Raether, H.

H. Raether, Surface Plasmon on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, 1988).

Rako, J. G.

Shinbo, K.

Y. Ohdaira, S. Hoshiyama, T. Kawakami, K. Shinbo, K. Kato, and F. Kaneko, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 051102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Silin, V.

V. Silin and A. Plant, Trends Biotechnol. 15, 353 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Simon, H. J.

Solak, H. H.

H. H. Solak and C. David, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 2883 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Spallas, J. P.

J. P. Spallas, A. M. Hawryluk, and D. R. Kania, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 1973 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sui, S. F.

X. Caide and S. F. Sui, Sens. Actuators B 66, 174 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Thio, T.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wei, Q. H.

Z. W. Liu, Q. H. Wei, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 5, 957 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolff, P. A.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

Z. W. Liu, Q. H. Wei, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 5, 957 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

X. G. Luo and T. Ishihara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4780 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohdaira, S. Hoshiyama, T. Kawakami, K. Shinbo, K. Kato, and F. Kaneko, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 051102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Comput. Phys. (1)

J. P. Berenger, Comput. Phys. 114, 185 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A (1)

J. C. Martinez-Anton, J. Opt. A 8, s213 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (2)

J. P. Spallas, A. M. Hawryluk, and D. R. Kania, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 1973 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Solak and C. David, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 2883 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

M. M. Alkaisi, R. J. Blaikie, and S. J. McNab, Microelectron. Eng. 53, 237 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

Z. W. Liu, Q. H. Wei, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 5, 957 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Sens. Actuators B (1)

X. Caide and S. F. Sui, Sens. Actuators B 66, 174 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Trends Biotechnol. (1)

V. Silin and A. Plant, Trends Biotechnol. 15, 353 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

H. Raether, Surface Plasmon on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, 1988).

W. M. Moreau, Semiconductor Lithography: Principles, Practices, and Materials (Plenum, 1998).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the LSPPIL process.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Electric field distribution of the interference patterns for the coated and uncoated prism configurations under the conditions: the incidence wavelength λ = 441 nm , TM polarization; the incidence angle θ i = 59.9 ° ; the thickness of the silver film h = 30 nm .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Normalized intensities of the electrical components and (b) the intensity contrast of the E z components as a function of the distance from the origin in coated and uncoated cases.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Normalized intensity and contrast of the fringes as a function of (a) the silver thickness and (b) the angle deviation at y = 100 nm .

Equations (2)

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k SPP = k o [ ε m ε d ( ε m + ε d ) ] 1 2 ,
k x = k o n p sin θ i = k SPP ,

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