We demonstrate extremely efficient germanium-on-silicon metal–semiconductor–metal photodetectors with responsivities as high as at and reverse bias. Ge was directly grown on Si by using a novel heteroepitaxial growth technique, which uses multisteps of growth and hydrogen annealing to reduce surface roughness and threading dislocations that form due to the 4.2% lattice mismatch. Photodiodes on such layers exhibit reverse dark currents of and external quantum efficiency up to 68%. This technology is promising to realize monolithically integrated optoelectronics.
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