Abstract

An interference-based scheme for fabricating periodic metal gratings on one side of the uniform waist of optical fiber tapers has been developed. Optical characterization of a 5mm long, 511nm period gold grating fiber taper with a 10μm diameter reveals backward coupling to both guided and radiation modes that is explained by using an analytical mode-coupling analysis. A refractometer based on this grating taper has a high and constant sensitivity over a large refractive index operating range of 1 to 1.41.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2005 (1)

J. F. Ding, A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. H. Yan, and S. He, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1247 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

2001 (3)

K. Schroeder, W. Ecke, R. Mueller, R. Willsch, and A. Andreev, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 757 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Laffont and P. Ferdinand, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 765 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Diez, M. V. Andres, and J. L. Cruz, Sens. Actuators B 73, 95 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

T. Erdogan, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

T. Erdogan and J. E. Sipe, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 296 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Diez, M. V. Andres, D. O. Culverhouse, and T. A. Birks, Electron. Lett. 32, 1390 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

T. A. Birks and Y. W. Li, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 432 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

J. D. Love and W. M. Henry, Electron. Lett. 22, 912 (1986).
[CrossRef]

I. Bennion, D. C. J. Reid, C. J. Rowe, and W. J. Stewart, Electron. Lett. 22, 341 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

Andreev, A.

K. Schroeder, W. Ecke, R. Mueller, R. Willsch, and A. Andreev, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 757 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Andres, M. V.

A. Diez, M. V. Andres, and J. L. Cruz, Sens. Actuators B 73, 95 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Diez, M. V. Andres, D. O. Culverhouse, and T. A. Birks, Electron. Lett. 32, 1390 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Barclay, P. E.

Bennion, I.

I. Bennion, D. C. J. Reid, C. J. Rowe, and W. J. Stewart, Electron. Lett. 22, 341 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Biancalana, F.

Birks, T. A.

W. J. Wadsworth, N. Joly, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, F. Biancalana, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Express 12, 299 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Diez, M. V. Andres, D. O. Culverhouse, and T. A. Birks, Electron. Lett. 32, 1390 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Birks and Y. W. Li, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 432 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Borselli, M.

Cruz, J. L.

A. Diez, M. V. Andres, and J. L. Cruz, Sens. Actuators B 73, 95 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Culverhouse, D. O.

A. Diez, M. V. Andres, D. O. Culverhouse, and T. A. Birks, Electron. Lett. 32, 1390 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Diez, A.

A. Diez, M. V. Andres, and J. L. Cruz, Sens. Actuators B 73, 95 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Diez, M. V. Andres, D. O. Culverhouse, and T. A. Birks, Electron. Lett. 32, 1390 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ding, J. F.

J. F. Ding, A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. H. Yan, and S. He, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1247 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ecke, W.

K. Schroeder, W. Ecke, R. Mueller, R. Willsch, and A. Andreev, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 757 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Erdogan, T.

Ferdinand, P.

G. Laffont and P. Ferdinand, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 765 (2001).
[CrossRef]

He, S.

J. F. Ding, A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. H. Yan, and S. He, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1247 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Henry, W. M.

J. D. Love and W. M. Henry, Electron. Lett. 22, 912 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Joly, N.

Knight, J. C.

Laffont, G.

G. Laffont and P. Ferdinand, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 765 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y. W.

T. A. Birks and Y. W. Li, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 432 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Love, J. D.

J. D. Love and W. M. Henry, Electron. Lett. 22, 912 (1986).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman and Hall, 1983).

Mueller, R.

K. Schroeder, W. Ecke, R. Mueller, R. Willsch, and A. Andreev, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 757 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Painter, O.

Reid, D. C. J.

I. Bennion, D. C. J. Reid, C. J. Rowe, and W. J. Stewart, Electron. Lett. 22, 341 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Rowe, C. J.

I. Bennion, D. C. J. Reid, C. J. Rowe, and W. J. Stewart, Electron. Lett. 22, 341 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. S. J.

Russell, P. St. J.

Schroeder, K.

K. Schroeder, W. Ecke, R. Mueller, R. Willsch, and A. Andreev, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 757 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shao, L. Y.

J. F. Ding, A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. H. Yan, and S. He, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1247 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sipe, J. E.

Snyder, A. W.

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman and Hall, 1983).

Srinivasan, K.

Stewart, W. J.

I. Bennion, D. C. J. Reid, C. J. Rowe, and W. J. Stewart, Electron. Lett. 22, 341 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ulrich, R.

Wadsworth, W. J.

Willsch, R.

K. Schroeder, W. Ecke, R. Mueller, R. Willsch, and A. Andreev, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 757 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yan, J. H.

J. F. Ding, A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. H. Yan, and S. He, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1247 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, A. P.

J. F. Ding, A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. H. Yan, and S. He, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1247 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (3)

I. Bennion, D. C. J. Reid, C. J. Rowe, and W. J. Stewart, Electron. Lett. 22, 341 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Love and W. M. Henry, Electron. Lett. 22, 912 (1986).
[CrossRef]

A. Diez, M. V. Andres, D. O. Culverhouse, and T. A. Birks, Electron. Lett. 32, 1390 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. F. Ding, A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. H. Yan, and S. He, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1247 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

T. Erdogan, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Birks and Y. W. Li, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 432 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Meas. Sci. Technol. (2)

K. Schroeder, W. Ecke, R. Mueller, R. Willsch, and A. Andreev, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 757 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Laffont and P. Ferdinand, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 765 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Sens. Actuators B (1)

A. Diez, M. V. Andres, and J. L. Cruz, Sens. Actuators B 73, 95 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman and Hall, 1983).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Scanning electron micrograph of a gold grating fiber taper. (b) Spectral measurement scheme.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured reflectivity and transmittance spectra of the grating taper when immersed in (a) air and (b) water. The grating couples light to backward guided modes at longer wavelengths and to backward radiation modes at short wavelengths. In (c) and (d), the vertical lines mark the calculated resonant wavelengths of the first 19 guided mode couplings.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Mode-coupling wavelength as a function of external refractive index. Solid lines show upper and lower boundaries of enhanced radiation-coupling region defined by Eq. (4).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of Fiber Refractometers

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

λ i = [ n 0 ( D , λ i , n ext ) + n i ( D , λ i , n ext ) ] Λ ,
λ R = [ n 0 ( D , λ R , n ext ) + n ext ] Λ .
K l j t ( z ) ω d x d y Δ ϵ ( x , y , z ) E l t ( x , y ) E j t * ( x , y ) .
λ R [ 1 p 2 Λ λ R ( 8 D 2 n ext ) ] λ λ R .
λ R ( n core + n ext ) Λ .

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