Abstract

A mid-infrared supercontinuum (SC) is generated in ZBLAN (ZrF4BaF2LaF3AlF3NaF) fluoride fibers from amplified nanosecond laser diode pulses with a continuous spectrum from 0.8μm to beyond 4.5μm. The SC has an average power of 23mW, a pump-to-SC power conversion efficiency exceeding 50%, and a spectral power density of 20dBmnm over a large fraction of the spectrum. The SC generation is initiated by the breakup of nanosecond laser diode pulses into femtosecond pulses through modulation instability, and the spectrum is then broadened primarily through fiber nonlinearities in 27m lengths of ZBLAN fiber. The SC long-wavelength edge is consistent with the intrinsic ZBLAN material absorption.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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C. L. Hagen, J. W. Walewski, and S. T. Sanders, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 91 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Moon and D. Y. Kim, Opt. Express 14, 270 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

2004

2002

1990

1989

J. M. Parker, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 19, 21 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1985

M. Monerie, F. Alard, and G. Maze, Electron. Lett. 21, 1179 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Abeeluck, A.

Abeeluck, A. K.

Alard, F.

M. Monerie, F. Alard, and G. Maze, Electron. Lett. 21, 1179 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Barton, J. S.

Chau, A.

Coen, S.

Feder, K. S.

Hagen, C. L.

C. L. Hagen, J. W. Walewski, and S. T. Sanders, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 91 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Harper, P. G.

Harrington, J. A.

J. A. Harrington, in Handbook of Optics Vol. 3, Classical, Vision and X-ray Optics, M.Bass, J.M.Enoch, E.W.Van Striland, and W.L.Wolfe, eds. (Optical Society of America, 2002), pp. 14.1-14.16.

Harvey, J.

Headley, C.

Islam, M. N.

C. Xia, M. Kumar, O. P. Kulkarni, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, Jr., D. A. Nolan, and W. A. Wood, presented at Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics CLEO 2006, Long Beach, Calif., May 21-26, 2006, invited talk CThV5.

Jones, J. D. C.

Jørgensen, C.

Kim, D. Y.

Knight, J.

Kulkarni, O. P.

C. Xia, M. Kumar, O. P. Kulkarni, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, Jr., D. A. Nolan, and W. A. Wood, presented at Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics CLEO 2006, Long Beach, Calif., May 21-26, 2006, invited talk CThV5.

Kumar, M.

C. Xia, M. Kumar, O. P. Kulkarni, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, Jr., D. A. Nolan, and W. A. Wood, presented at Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics CLEO 2006, Long Beach, Calif., May 21-26, 2006, invited talk CThV5.

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Maze, G.

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Moon, S.

Morgan, R.

Nicholson, J. W.

Nolan, D. A.

C. Xia, M. Kumar, O. P. Kulkarni, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, Jr., D. A. Nolan, and W. A. Wood, presented at Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics CLEO 2006, Long Beach, Calif., May 21-26, 2006, invited talk CThV5.

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Sorokina, I. T.

I. T. Sorokina and K. L. Vodopyanov, eds., Solid-State Mid-Infrared Laser Sources (Springer-Verlag, 2003).
[CrossRef]

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C. Xia, M. Kumar, O. P. Kulkarni, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, Jr., D. A. Nolan, and W. A. Wood, presented at Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics CLEO 2006, Long Beach, Calif., May 21-26, 2006, invited talk CThV5.

Vodopyanov, K. L.

I. T. Sorokina and K. L. Vodopyanov, eds., Solid-State Mid-Infrared Laser Sources (Springer-Verlag, 2003).
[CrossRef]

Wadsworth, W.

Walewski, J. W.

C. L. Hagen, J. W. Walewski, and S. T. Sanders, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 91 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Westbrook, P. S.

Wood, W. A.

C. Xia, M. Kumar, O. P. Kulkarni, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, Jr., D. A. Nolan, and W. A. Wood, presented at Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics CLEO 2006, Long Beach, Calif., May 21-26, 2006, invited talk CThV5.

Xia, C.

C. Xia, M. Kumar, O. P. Kulkarni, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, Jr., D. A. Nolan, and W. A. Wood, presented at Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics CLEO 2006, Long Beach, Calif., May 21-26, 2006, invited talk CThV5.

Yablon, A. D.

Yan, M. F.

Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci.

J. M. Parker, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 19, 21 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

M. Monerie, F. Alard, and G. Maze, Electron. Lett. 21, 1179 (1985).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

C. L. Hagen, J. W. Walewski, and S. T. Sanders, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 91 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Other

C. Xia, M. Kumar, O. P. Kulkarni, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, Jr., D. A. Nolan, and W. A. Wood, presented at Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics CLEO 2006, Long Beach, Calif., May 21-26, 2006, invited talk CThV5.

J. A. Harrington, in Handbook of Optics Vol. 3, Classical, Vision and X-ray Optics, M.Bass, J.M.Enoch, E.W.Van Striland, and W.L.Wolfe, eds. (Optical Society of America, 2002), pp. 14.1-14.16.

I. T. Sorokina and K. L. Vodopyanov, eds., Solid-State Mid-Infrared Laser Sources (Springer-Verlag, 2003).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for 2 ns laser diode pulses amplified in multiple stages of EDFAs.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Attenuation loss (dB/km) for the third ZBLAN fiber (FL#3) with a cutoff wavelength at 2.75 μ m .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SC Spectrum from 1 m of SMF followed by (a) 7 m and (b) 4.5 m of FL#3 fluoride fiber.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optimization of SC generation by varying different parameters. (a) Various lengths of the first-stage SMF fiber followed by 3 m of FL#2; (b) various lengths of the second-stage ZBLAN FL#3 fiber following 1 m of SMF; and (c) various pump power levels in 1 m of SMF plus 2 m of FL#3 fiber.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spectrum of the SC long-wavelength side for three different ZBLAN fibers.

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